November 22, 2019
  • 7:37 pm Keeping Weight Off After Keto | After The Keto Diet | Food After Keto
  • 6:35 pm Why is There Acesulfame Potassium in my Whey Protein?
  • 3:35 pm Keto 101 – Effective Supplementation with Exogenous Ketones
  • 3:35 pm Hugh Jackman’s Three-Month Prep For A Shirtless Scene
  • 10:36 am The Best Protein Shake Meal Replacement – Instant Kale Shake


♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪>>HELLO AND WELCOME ONCE AGAIN TO SIMPLY SCIENCE. TODAY WE ARE AT THE HUNTER’S POINT SOUTH PARK IN LONG ISLAND CITY, SURROUNDED BY THESE TALL BUILDINGS. WE OFTEN FORGET THAT OUTSIDE THE STEEL CANYONS WE ARE SURROUNDED BY RIVERS AND OCEANS FULL OF MARINE LIFE. LATER ON I WILL INTRODUCE YOU TO A MARINE BIOLOGIST WHO HAS MADE INCREDIBLE DISCOVERIES. HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF A FLASHLIGHT FISH? A LOT OF PEOPLE USE THE TERM ADDICTED KIND OF LOOSELY. OH, I’M ADDICTED TO SODA — OH, I’M ADDICTED TO WATCHING GAME OF THRONES. BUT WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOMETHING WE REALLY LOVE, EVEN CRAVE AND A TRUE ADDICTION? CAROL ANN RIDDELL DID SOME RESEARCH.>>LET’S START WITH SOME COLD, HARD FACTS. I’M HOOKED ON GUMMY FISH. WHEN THESE CHEWY LITTLE GUPPIES ARE IN THE KITCHEN, I WON’T STOP THINKING ABOUT THEM UNTIL I GRAB A HANDFUL, OR SEVERAL. AND APPARENTLY I’M NOT ALONE.>>ANY CANDY. MAYBE FIVE TIMES A WEEK I HAVE TO EAT SOME TYPE OF CANDY.>>I’M WITH YOU.>>I SHOULDN’T THOUGH IT’S BAD FOR MY BRACES.>>FOR ME IT’S GATORADE AND GOBSTOPPERS. GATORADE KEEPS ME HYDRATED AND GOBSTOPPERS JUST KEEP ME GOING.>>BUT THERE’S A BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHAT MAY BE A CRAVING OR EVEN A BAD HABIT AND WHAT IS A TRUE, LIFE-CHANGING ADDICTION. AND THAT DIFFERENCE CAN BE EXPLAINED WITH SCIENCE. SCOTT EWING SPECIALIZES IS PURSUING A PHD IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, HE SPECIALIZES IN ADDICTION RESEARCH AND TEACHES AT QUEENS COLLEGE.>>ALL OF THESE THINGS ACT ON A CERTAIN PART OF OUR BRAIN CALLED THE REWARD SYSTEM, THE REWARD CIRCUIT. THESE ARE STRUCTURES WITHIN THE BRAIN THAT ARE ACTIVATED WHEN WE ARE DOING SOMETHING THAT WE LIKE. IT COULD BE FOOD, SEX, GAMBLING OR IT COULD BE DRUGS OF ABUSE. IT SERVES A VERY IMPORTANT FUNCTION FOR SURVIVAL. IF WE DIDN’T FEEL THAT REWARD, THAT MOTIVATION FOR FOOD OR SEX WE MIGHT STARVE, WE MIGHT NOT PROCREATE. THINGS LIKE FOOD CAN ACTIVATE THAT SYSTEM A LITTLE BIT. DRUGS OF ABUSE — IT’S LIKE PEDAL TO THE METAL, IT WILL FULLY ACTIVATE THAT SYSTEM IN A CHEMICAL, UNNATURAL WAY.>>AS SCOTT EXPLAINS IT’S IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE BRAIN CAN CHANGE IN ADDICTION, TO SOME DEGREE RE-WIRING ITSELF TO DEMAND MORE OF THE SUBSTANCE OR BEHAVIOR. WHEN PEOPLE TRULY SUFFER FROM ADDICTION, SIMPLY STOPPING IS NOT SO EASY.>>ON A VERY NEUROLOGICAL, CHEMICAL LEVEL THESE SUBSTANCES CHANGE THE BRAIN IN WAYS THAT MAKE IT DIFFICULT AND SOMETIMES IMPOSSIBLE TO PULL BACK. A LOT OF DRUGS OF ABUSE AND OTHER THINGS LIKE GAMBLING AND SEX, THEY CAN CAUSE CHANGES WITHIN THE BRAIN THAT MAKE IT MUCH MORE APPETIZING, MUCH MORE MOTIVATING TO THAT PERSON AND MUCH MORE DIFFICULT FOR THAT PERSON TO ABSTAIN.>>AND THE UNITED STATES HAS A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CHALLENGE WHEN IT COMES TO ALCOHOL AND DRUG MISUSE. THE OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL SAYS THAT MORE THAN 27 MILLION PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES REPORTED THAT THEY ARE USING ILLICIT DRUGS OR MISUSING PRESCRIPTION DRUGS AND NEARLY A QUARTER OF ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS REPORTED BINGE DRINKING IN THE PAST MONTH. ALSO, THE ANNUAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF SUBSTANCE MISUSE IS ESTIMATED TO BE $249 BILLION FOR ALCOHOL MISUSE AND $193 BILLION FOR ILLICIT DRUG USE.>>THERE IS A LOT OF STIGMA, A LOT OF MISUNDERSTANDING OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE AN ADDICTION WHEN VIEWED BY PEOPLE WHO HAVE NEVER BEEN ADDICTED TO A SUBSTANCE OR AN ACTIVITY.>>BACK TO WHAT I SAID EARLIER, IS IT AN ADDICTION? NOT SO MUCH. MORE LIKE A HABIT THAT IS HARD TO BREAK. ACTUAL ADDICTION IS SOMETHING ELSE ENTIRELY. FROM SCOTT’S PERSPECTIVE, WE COULD USE MORE COMPASSION WHEN CONFRONTING IT.>>THOSE THAT MIGHT BE SUFFERING FROM ADDICTION IT’S JUST NOT AS EASY AS SAYING, I’LL JUST STOP. IT’S HARDER THAN THAT.>>I’M CAROL ANN RIDDELL FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE. ♪>>THE KETO DIET IS THE LATEST DIET CRAZE. AND THE KEY TO FINDING OUT MORE ABOUT IT IS OUR SUSAN JHUN.>>THE KETOGENIC DIET.>>THE KETOGENIC DIET.>>THE KETOGENIC DIET.>>IT’S THE NEWEST DIET CRAZE, THAT’S ALL THE RAGE.>>I GOT INTO THE BEST SHAPE OF MY LIFE WITH THE DIET.>>THERE’S NO QUESTION THAT THE KETO DIET IS POPULAR BUT DOES IT REALLY WORK? WE WILL START BY TAKING A LOOK AT HOW IT WORKS. THE KEY TO KETO IS BURNING FAT INSTEAD OF SUGAR.>>THE KETOGENIC DIET IS WHEN THE BODY USES FAT AS FUEL INSTEAD OF GLUCOSE. SO, TO OBTAIN THAT, ONE MUST STARVE THEIR BODY FROM CARBOHYDRATES AND LIMIT IT TO NO MORE THAN 50 GRAMS OF CARBS PER DAY.>>FORMER CUNY PROFESSOR AND NUTRITIONIST, LORRAINE KEARNEY SAYS THE HIGH FAT, LOW CARB EATING PLAN PUTS THE BODY INTO THE METABOLIC STATE OF KETOSIS, WHEN THE BODY BEGINS TO BURN FAT FOR ENERGY BECAUSE IT DOESN’T HAVE ENOUGH CARBOHYDRATES TO BURN. DURING KETOSIS, THE LIVER PRODUCES A TYPE OF ACID CALLED KETONES, WHICH IS RELEASED IN URINE AND INDICATES THAT FAT IS BEING BURNED INSTEAD OF GLUCOSE. THE KETOGENIC, OR KETO DIET STRIVES TO INDUCE KETOSIS IN ORDER TO BURN MORE FAT.>>I WAS ABLE TO LOSE WEIGHT REALLY FAST. I GOT THE RESULTS I WANTED, I GOT REALLY LEAN, I WAS LIKE THOSE GUYS IN THE PICTURES.>>AMATEUR BODYBUILDER SCARLYN TRIED KETO FOR 3 MONTHS AND SAYS AT FIRST HE EXPERIENCED WHAT’S KNOWN AS THE KETO FLU, WHERE THE BODY MIMICS THE SYMPTOMS OF THE FLU WHILE ADJUSTING TO A DIET LACKING IN CARBS. BUT ONCE THOSE SYMPTOMS WENT AWAY, VELOZ SAYS THE DIET WORKED LIKE A CHARM, ALLOWING HIM TO INDULGE IN ALL THE BACON AND FAT HE WANTED WHILE LOSING WEIGHT. BUT ULTIMATELY, VELOZ SAYS IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE FOR HIM TO SUSTAIN.>>I WAS JUST FEELING LIKE A ZOMBIE. I COULDN’T EVEN WALK WELL, I WAS JUST SO DIZZY. I FELT LIKE I WAS MISSING SOMETHING, I WAS LIKE WOW, MY BODY’S NOT FUNCTIONING THE SAME.>>AND THE NATURAL FRUITS AND VEGGIES VELOZ LOVED TO EAT WERE FORBIDDEN CARBS.>>ONE OF THE THINGS THAT THE KETO DIET DOES IS DEPRIVE YOURSELF FROM EATING THINGS LIKE BANANAS, APPLES, ORANGES.>>YOU’RE ONLY GOING TO SEE RESULTS FOR AS LONG AS YOU’RE DOING THAT DIET. A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO DO THE KETOGENIC DIET, IT’S THAT QUICK FIX, I’LL DO IT FOR TWO OR THREE MONTHS AND THEN THEY STOP, BECAUSE LIFE GETS IN THE WAY. MAYBE IT’S KIDS, WORK, STRESS, AND THEN OLD EATING HABITS COME IN.>>AND FOR SOME, KEARNEY SAYS THE DIET CAN ACTUALLY BE HARMFUL.>>THE KETOGENIC DIET CAN BE DANGEROUS FOR SOME PEOPLE, ESPECIALLY FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DIABETIC. SO, WHEN YOU ARE USING KETONES AS FUEL, THE BODY DOESN’T PRODUCE AS MUCH INSULIN, SO WHEN THERE’S NOT ENOUGH INSULIN IN THE BLOOD THAT CAN CAUSE AN IMBALANCE OF ELECTROLYTES AS WELL. IF THE BODY IS IN A STATE OF KETOSIS, THAT CAN TURN INTO KETOACIDOSIS, THEN THERE’S A BUILDUP OF ACIDITY IN THE BODY AND CAN AFFECT OUR HEART HEALTH AND MAY EVEN CAUSE DEATH.>>KEARNEY SAYS ALL DIETS INCLUDING THE KETO DIET ARE A FORM OF THE ATKINS DIET, WHICH LIMITS CARBS AND IS NOT ONLY HARD TO SUSTAIN BUT MAY LEAD TO A VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEPRIVATION AND INDULGENCE.>>THERE’S CAKE THAT COMES AROUND AND IT’S LIKE NO, I CAN’T HAVE IT, I’M ON A DIET. THAT LEADS TO THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS OF BEING DEPRIVED. SO, WHEN YOU DO GO TO EAT THAT PIECE OF CAKE, YOU MAY FIND THAT YOU’RE HAVING TWO SLICES OF CAKE OR THREE SLICES OF CAKE AND THEN YOU’RE BACK TO SQUARE ONE, YOU HAVE GUILT, YOU’RE LIKE WHY DID I EAT ALL THIS FOOD AND YOU START TO FEEL DEPRIVED AND IT CREATES LIKE AN UNHEALTHY RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD.>>WHICH IS WHY KEARNEY SAYS THE KEY TO A HEALTHY DIET IS UNDERSTANDING THE WAY YOU RELATE TO FOOD.>>UNDERSTANDING THE HOWs AND THE WHYs BEHIND YOUR EATING, THAT IS WHERE YOU GET THE LONG-TERM RESULTS. THAT IS WHEN YOU DON’T EVEN HAVE TO USE THE WORD DIET. CLEAN, GOOD FOOD, WHOLE FOOD. THERE IS A RIGHT RATIO OF CARBS TO FATS TO PROTEIN.>>BALANCE, WHICH MAY BE THE WAY TO WIN THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE. FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I’M SUSAN JHUN.>>I HAD TWO PIECES OF CAKE FOR BREAKFAST. HOW COME I FEEL STRANGE? CAN FOOD AFFECT YOUR MOOD?>>LISA SASSON IS A REGISTERED DIETITIAN AND ON THE CLINICAL FACULTY AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY’S DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD STUDY. SHE SAYS THE GOAL IS TO JUMPSTART THE DAY WITH A PROPER BREAKFAST.>>HAVING A VERY SUGARY BREAKFAST, A LOT OF ADDED SUGARS, PASTRIES, SWEETS, THAT CAN REALLY BRING YOUR BLOOD LEVELS DOWN AND MAKE YOU FEEL SLUGGISH AFTER A WHILE BECAUSE THERE IS SO MUCH SUGAR AND ALL THAT SUGAR RUSH GOES RIGHT TO YOUR CELLS AND IT KEEPS YOU AT A VERY LOW SUGAR LEVEL IN YOUR BLOOD AND YOU FEEL HUNGRY AND YOU DON’T FEEL THAT ALERT. LET’S CHANGE THAT BREAKFAST. LET’S HAVE COFFEE AND WHOLE WHEAT TOAST WITH A SMEAR OF PEANUT BUTTER AND A PIECE OF FRUIT AND ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU FEEL MORE ENERGETIC, MORE ALERT BECAUSE YOU HAVE HEALTHY FATS, HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEIN AND YOUR BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL IS GOING TO STABILIZE.>>EVEN THOUGH SHE INCLUDED COFFEE IN HER BREAKFAST MENU, SHE SAYS WATCH THE CAFFEINE INTAKE.>>THE PROBLEM IS IF YOU DRINK TOO MUCH COFFEE BECAUSE OF CAFFEINE IT CAN MAKE YOU FEEL REALLY JITTERY AND NERVOUS. THAT CAN AFFECT YOUR MOOD.>>THERE ARE OTHER DIETARY CHANGES YOU CAN MAKE TO IMPROVE HOW YOU FEEL INCLUDING GETTING SOME OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS INTO YOUR REGIMEN. SOME STUDIES SAY THERE MAY BE A LINK IN HOW SOME PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM CLINICAL DEPRESSION PROCESS OMEGA-3s.>>OMEGA-3 IS REALLY IMPORTANT. THE RESEARCH IS REALLY LINKED TO DEPRESSION, CLINICAL DEPRESSION, BUT PEOPLE SHOULD STILL BE GETTING GOOD SOURCES OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN THEIR DIET BECAUSE THERE MAY BE A LINK WITH MOOD.>>YOU CAN FIND THOSE OMEGA-3s IN NUTS LIKE WALNUTS, FLAXSEED, FISH LIKE SARDINES AND SOME GREEN VEGETABLES. WE HEAR A LOT ABOUT ADDING VITAMIN B TO OUR DIET BUT SASSON SAYS FOR THE VAST MAJORITY OF US, THAT IS NOT NECESSARY, BECAUSE IT IS ADDED IN SO MANY PROCESSED FOODS LIKE BREAD AND CEREAL. ON THE SUBJECT OF CEREAL, SHE SAYS KEEP THE KIDS OFF THE BRIGHTLY COLORED PRODUCTS AT THE STORE.>>YOU SHOULDN’T BE EATING FOODS THAT’S NEON GREEN AND SHOCKING PINK. HAVE LOTS OF COLORFUL FRUIT AND VEGETABLES, THAT’S WHERE A LOT OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS ARE. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE BALANCED MEALS WITH A GOOD SOURCE OF HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATES LIKE OATMEAL OR WHOLE-GRAINS, BROWN RICE. THESE ARE HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATES. GOOD SOURCES OF HEALTHY PROTEIN INCLUDING FISH, BEANS, HUMMUS, EGGS, PEANUT BUTTER. AND HEALTHY FATS, AVOCADO, OLIVE OIL, NUTS. YOU WILL FEEL GOOD, YOUR BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS WILL BE STABLE AND YOU ARE GOING TO FEEL BETTER.>>THE BOTTOM LINE IS, THE DECISIONS YOU MAKE ABOUT WHAT YOU EAT OR PUT INTO YOUR TANK OVER THE COURSE OF THE DAY COULD HAVE A MAJOR IMPACT ON HOW YOU FEEL AND YOUR MOOD OVERALL. ♪>>DAVID GRUBER IS A NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER AND PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST AT BARUCH COLLEGE. I MET UP WITH HIM AT HIS LAB AND WE TALKED ABOUT HIS TRAVELS IN THE KINGDOM UNDER THE SEA. ♪>>I WAS ALWAYS INTERESTED IN ANIMALS, INTERESTED IN LIFE AND ALL FACETS OF LIFE. I LOVE THE FACT THAT IT IS THESE ANIMALS IN THE OCEAN, THESE INCREDIBLY PRIMITIVE PREHISTORIC ANIMALS THAT ACTUALLY HAVE SECRETS THAT HELP US BETTER UNDERSTAND OUR BRAIN, OUR CONSCIOUSNESS AND FIGHT DISEASES.>>MEET DR. DAVID GRUBER. HE IS A PRESIDENTIAL PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. HE IS ALSO A NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER, MARINE BIOLOGIST, INVENTOR AND ADVENTURER.>>IT WAS A RAW FASCINATION WITH THE ENERGY OF THE OCEAN AND THE MYSTERY — THERE.>>MYSTERIES LIKE WHY MANY DEEP-SEA CREATURES GLOW-IN-THE-DARK.>>BELOW 700 METERS THERE IS NO SUNLIGHT. BIOLUMINESCENCE IS THE MAIN FORM OF COMMUNICATION. ANIMALS ARE BLINKING.>>BIOLUMINESCENCE REFERS TO ANIMALS THAT GIVE OFF THEIR OWN LIGHT, LIKE FIREFLIES. THEY ACTUALLY PRODUCE THEIR OWN PHOTONS. THIS JELLYFISH IS AN EXAMPLE OF BIOLUMINESCENCE. SO IS ONE OF DAVID’S MORE RECENT DISCOVERIES, FLASHLIGHT FISH WHO USE THEIR GLOWING LIGHT TO COORDINATE SCHOOLING TOGETHER. THEN THERE ARE FLUORESCENT ANIMALS WHO TAKE EXISTING LIGHT AND CONVERT IT TO ANOTHER COLOR LIKE THIS RARE SEA TURTLE AND THIS SHARK THAT TURNS BLUE LIGHT INTO A GLOWING NEON GREEN THAT ONLY OTHER SHARKS CAN SEE.>>BIOLUMINESCENCE IS BEING USED IN CANCER RESEARCH BY LIGHTING UP CELLS. FOR INSTANCE, YOU COULD PUT A BIOLUMINESCENT GENE ON A CANCER GENE AND YOU COULD WATCH THAT GENE GROW AND ESSENTIALLY WATCH THE TUMOR METASTASIZE, AND THEN YOU COULD ACTUALLY SEE WHAT KIND OF DRUGS YOU ARE TRYING ON THIS AND IT WILL ALLOW YOU, SINCE YOU ARE LIGHTING UP THE TUMOR, YOU CAN NOTICE, THIS DRUG IS SHRINKING THE TUMOR.>>THIS IS IN PRACTICE NOW?>>THIS IS WIDELY IN PRACTICE. WE ARE OFF THE COAST OF BRAZIL AND WE ARE AT A DEPTH OF 630 METERS. WE ARE TESTING OUT OUR SQUISHY ROBOT ARM.>>DR. GRUBER IS PART OF THE TEAM THAT DEVELOPED A MORE HUMANE WAY OF SAMPLING MARINE LIFE USING SOFT ROBOTICS.>>OUR PHILOSOPHY IS CAN WE USE TECHNOLOGY TO BE GENTLE? CAN WE USE TECHNOLOGY TO CONNECT US TO NATURE? OUR FIRST PROJECT WAS SQUISHY ROBOT FINGERS. WE BROUGHT THIS DOWN TO THE RED SEA AND WE SHOWED THAT IT WORKS. INSIDE THE SUBMARINE WE WILL WEAR A GLOVE AND THE SQUISHY ROBOT ARM WILL DO WHAT THE HAND IS DOING. THE IDEA OF THIS SQUISHY ROBOT ARM IS A DELICATE WAY TO INTERACT WITH DEEP MARINE LIFE.>>WELL DONE.>>AND THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT FROM DR. GRUBER AND HIS TEAM, A ROBOTIC ARM WITH NOODLE LIKE FINGERS THAT GENTLY CRADLES DELICATE MARINE LIFE SUCH AS JELLYFISH THAT CAN THEN BE STUDIED, SWABBED AND RELEASED WITHOUT HARM.>>I NEVER THOUGHT I WOULD BE WORKING ALONGSIDE SOME OF THE TOP ROBOTICISTS, SOME OF THE TOP NEUROSCIENTISTS. IT IS THIS IDEA THAT EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED. ALL LIFE IS CONNECTED.>>BARRY MITCHELL FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE.>>WE EAT A LOT OF FISH, SO MUCH THAT DEMAND IS EXCEEDING SUPPLY. THAT IS CALLED UNSUSTAINABILITY. HOW DO WE PRODUCE MORE FISH IN A HELPFUL MANNER? WE SENT ANDREW FALZON TO HAWAII TO DO A STORY ABOUT AQUACULTURE, FISH FARMING.>>THIS IS ABALONE. ONE OF THE OCEAN’S GREATEST DELICACIES READY TO SERVE AT ONE OF THE WORLD’S MOST EXCLUSIVE RESTAURANTS. BUT WHAT MAKES THIS PLATE TRULY SPECIAL IS THAT IT BEGAN ON AN ABALONE FARM ALMOST 5,000 MILES AWAY FROM NEW YORK CITY USING A RECIPE THAT WAS ONE PART CONSERVATION AND TWO PARTS SCIENCE.>>ABALONE DO LIVE IN THE WILD. THEY’RE A COLD WATER ANIMAL. BUT THEY’VE BEEN OVER-HARVESTED.>>AND THAT’S WHY BIOLOGISTS LIKE ASHLEY VAN JETZER ARE FARMING THESE OCEAN ODDITIES AT BIG ISLAND ABALONE LOCATED ON THE KONA COAST IN HAWAII. IN 2015 MORE THAN 135,000 TONS OF ABALONE WERE CONSUMED WORLDWIDE. IN THE PAST, NEARLY ALL OF THE WORLD’S ABALONE WAS FISHED, BUT IN THE LAST 50 YEARS, THAT HAS CHANGED SIGNIFICANTLY BECAUSE WILD POPULATIONS WERE OVER-HARVESTED.>>SO TO PRESERVE THEM AS A SPECIES THERE ARE FARMS LIKE OURS AROUND THE WORLD WHO HAVE BEEN RAISING THEM PRIMARILY FOR THE DINNER PLATES.>>ABALONE ARE SEA SNAILS, KNOWN FOR THEIR FLAT, IRIDESCENT SHELLS. DEMAND IS HIGH. SUPPLY IS LOW. THAT MAKES IT A PRICEY DELICACY AROUND THE WORLD. IN THE 1920s, IT WOULD HAVE COST YOU ABOUT $28 A POUND IN TODAY’S MONEY. NOW? HOW ABOUT $125 A POUND, AND IN MOST PLACES AROUND THE WORLD, ALMOST ALL ABALONE ARE ILLEGAL TO HARVEST.>>IF WE CAN EASE UP ON COLLECTING, THEY CAN GET A CHANCE TO REST AND EVEN BEGIN TO REPAIR SOME OF THEIR POPULATIONS.>>BUT RAISING ABALONE TAKES A LOT OF SPECIALIZED RESOURCES. THE SEA SNAILS EAT ABOUT 10% OF THEIR BODY WEIGHT IN ALGAE EACH DAY. THEY PREFER THE RED KIND, SO BIG ISLAND FARMS THAT TOO. BUT PERHAPS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT IS THE WATER.>>SO OUR FARM ALONE HOUSES AROUND 4 MILLION SALE-READY ABALONE, AND THAT’S GOING TO USE ABOUT 150,000 GALLONS OF WATER A MINUTE.>>AND WHILE THE WARM WATERS OFF THE COAST OF HAWAII ARE GREAT FOR TOURISTS, IT’S NOT GOOD FOR ABALONE, WHICH PREFER COLD WATER BUT BIG ISLAND SHARES ITS WATER SOURCE WITH A NEIGHBORING CLEAN ELECTRICAL GENERATOR THAT USES DEEP WATER.>>AND THEY RAN THESE MAGNIFICENT PIPELINES OUT FROM THIS POINT OUT TO THE OCEAN, RANGING FROM 100 FEET TO 2000 FEET BELOW. AND THE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL WAS ALLOWING US TO TAP INTO THE TEMPERATURES WE NEED FOR THE ABALONE.>>EVEN THOUGH THE WATER OFF KONA IS CONSIDERED PRISTINE, BIG ISLAND ABALONE DEVOTES A LOT OF RESOURCES TO FILTRATION. THE FARM IS A LIKE CURATED ECO-SYSTEM CONSTANTLY TRYING TO CUT DOWN THE THREE YEAR FARM TO MARKET GROWTH CYCLE, WHILE MAINTAINING QUALITY.>>WE’VE ALREADY ACCELERATED THE TIME FROM THEY’RE BORN TO THE TIME THEY SETTLE AND START EATING. WE’VE TAKEN IT FROM 21 DAYS DOWN TO ABOUT 8 DAYS. BUT OF COURSE, OPTIMIZING THEIR FEED AND THEIR NUTRIENTS, KEEPING THEIR WATER AT A CONSISTENT TEMPERATURE. THAT’S ALL GOING TO ALLOW THEM AND GIVE THEM ADVANTAGE TO GROW FASTER.>>AND GROWING THEM FASTER GETS THEM TO MARKET FASTER, TO PLACES AS FAR AWAY AS NEW YORK. BIG ISLAND’S ABALONE ARE ALMOST ALWAYS ON THE MENU AT PER SE, LOCATED IN COLUMBUS CIRCLE, BUT KNOWN WORLDWIDE FOR ITS 3 MICHELIN STARS. ABALONE ARE SO EXPENSIVE. THEY’RE SO PRECIOUS. WHAT IS IT ABOUT THEM, CULINARILY, THAT MAKES THEM SUCH A DELICACY?>>WELL, WHAT IS IT? RIGHT? IT’S A GASTROPOD, ITS A SNAIL. RIGHT? A SEA SNAIL — IS THAT WEIRD? RIGHT? BUT I THINK THAT’S WHAT MAKES DELICACIES, DELICACIES. RIGHT? IS THE ODDNESS OF IT.>>LIKE THE ABALONE HE SERVES, CHEF COREY CHOW ALSO GOT HIS CULINARY START IN HAWAII. HE’S NOW CHEF DE CUISINE AT PER SE, RESPONSIBLE FOR EVERY PLATE THAT LEAVES THE KITCHEN. BUT I HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF DINING WITH THE CHEF, IN THE KITCHEN. CHEF COREY PREPARED A CONFIT HAWAIIAN ABALONE WITH CREAMED JAPANESE BLACK SCALLIONS, BLACK TRUFFLE AND LOVAGE MOUSSE. THAT IS OUTRAGEOUS. I CAN’T BELIEVE HOW TENDER IT IS. I HAVE HAD IT PREPARED BEFORE. GRILLED. IT WAS RUBBERY. THIS IS SO SOFT.>>CHEF ALWAYS HAS A PHILOSOPHY OF ONE KNOWING WHERE YOUR FOOD COMES FROM, AND TWO SUPPORTING THE GUYS THAT REALLY TAKE THE TIME TO TAKE THE CARE FOR THE PRODUCT AND WHERE THE PRODUCT IS COMING FROM. SO THIS ABALONE IS VERY SPECIAL BECAUSE OF WHERE IT’S FARMED. THE FARM ITSELF JUST TAKES CARE OF HOW TO TREAT THE PRODUCT.>>I’M ANDREW FALZON FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE ON CUNY TV.>>OLD MCDONALD MIGHT HAVE HAD GEESE ON HIS FARM BUT THEY ARE BECOMING A NUISANCE ON GOVERNORS ISLAND. WE SENT OUR INTERN ON A WILD GOOSE CHASE.>>GOVERNORS ISLAND IS KNOWN FOR BEING A TOURIST ATTRACTION, AND AN ESCAPE FROM THE BUSY STREETS. BUT THE ISLAND IS FACING A THREAT, CANADIAN GEESE. ♪ THE WORKING DOGS OF GOVERNORS ISLAND HAVE COME TO THE RESCUE.>>WE HAVE FOUR DOGS CURRENTLY. MAX IS OUR VETERAN. HE IS NINE YEARS OLD. QUINN IS THREE YEARS OLD. CHIP IS ALMOST TWO YEARS OLD. ASPEN IS JUST ONE-YEAR-OLD. THEY ARE GROWING AS A TEAM. SIT DOWN MAX.>>MOLLIE WORKS CLOSELY WITH THE WORKING DOGS ON GOVERNORS ISLAND AND ALSO THE DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS PLANNING AND SUSTAINABILITY.>>I AM ALSO IN CHARGE OF THE DOG PROGRAM WHICH IS TO HELP GEESE AWAY FROM THE ISLAND.>>THE GEESE PROBLEM ON THE ISLAND HAS BEEN AN ISSUE SINCE THE PARK OPENED TO THE PUBLIC IN 2014.>>CANADA GEESE CAN EAT FOUR POUNDS OF PLANT MATERIAL EACH DAY AND THEY ALSO POOP OUT ONE POUND OF MATERIAL EACH DAY. HAVING A POPULATION OF 100 GEESE ON THE ISLAND CAN LEAD TO A LOT OF MASS AND DOES DAMAGE TO THE LANDSCAPE. THEY EAT TURF AND GRASS AND PLANTS AND THEY CAN SPREAD INVASIVE SPECIES FROM OTHER PLACES. THEY CAN EAT SOMETHING AT ANOTHER PARK AND FLY HERE AND SPREAD THOSE SEEDS TO OUR LANDSCAPE. THERE IS A GREAT ECOLOGICAL BENEFIT TO KEEPING THEM OFF THE ISLAND. ♪>>THE WILD GOOSE CHASE HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR A WHILE AND HAS BEEN A TRIAL AND ERROR PROCESS.>>ORIGINALLY WE TRIED ALL KINDS OF METHODS TO KEEP THE GEESE AWAY AND THEY WEREN’T VERY EFFECTIVE. WE TRIED RC CARS, STROBE LIGHTS, FLAGS AND OTHER THINGS THAT BLOCK THEIR POINT OF VIEW BUT REALLY THE ONLY THING THAT HAS WORKED IS HAVING THE CONSISTENT DOG PRESENCE ON THE ISLAND.>>THESE AREN’T JUST ANY DOGS. QUINN, CHIP AND MAX ARE BORDER COLLIES, WELL KNOWN FOR HERDING TECHNIQUES. ASPEN IS AN AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD.>>MAX WAS BROUGHT OUT HERE FIRST. HE WAS VERY EFFECTIVE BECAUSE HE WAS PREVIOUSLY A FARM DOG. HE IS GREAT WITH A LOT OF COMMANDS. HE KNOWS WHICH WAY TO GO LEFT AND RIGHT. HE WILL NEVER ACTUALLY CATCH THE GEESE AND EVEN IF HE DOES, HE DOESN’T HAVE THE INSTINCT TO ATTACK THE BIRDS. THEY ARE A GREAT SPECIES TO HAVE DOING THIS JOB. GO MAX, GO. THEY CREATE THIS — AROUND THE GEESE AND THE GEESE FLY AWAY.>>FOR THE DOGS THIS IS WORK AND THEY ARE TREATED AS EMPLOYEES.>>THEY GET VACATIONS, THEY GET BREAKS, THEY GET TO GO HOME SOME NIGHTS AND SPEND TIME WITH THEIR FAMILIES. BUT THEY KNOW WHEN THEY’RE ON THE ISLAND, THEY’RE HERE TO WORK.>>FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I AM EUNICE ADEKOYA.>>AND THAT IS OUR SHOW. YOU CAN REACH US AT OUR WEBSITE AND ON FACEBOOK AND YOUTUBE. SEE YOU NEXT TIME ON SIMPLY SCIENCE. I MISSED MY BOAT. ♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪

Randall Smitham

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