April 6, 2020
  • 3:53 pm Fun Meal Prep Idea: Yellow-Colored Lunch Box
  • 3:53 pm Gilbert’s on Main serves New York Style Deli in Bellevue – KING 5 Evening
  • 3:53 pm Keto diet Meatballs with tomato sauce ASMR cooking No talking
  • 3:53 pm John’s Texas Tenderloin Roulade
  • 2:53 pm Why You Should Try “Cook Once Eat Twice” Meal Prep | What We Ate Over a Weekend (Healthy Recipes)


– [Narrator] In the crowded world of fitness and supplements, new miracle supplements
are always coming along. Something I learned from
the wild claims made on the labels of BCAA
supplements back in the day is that something that
sounds too good to be true most likely is. But every so often,
something will come along which isn’t promising the world. Instead, there are more
modest, science-backed claims, such as boosting physical
output, reducing muscle soreness, and increasing blood flow for
those ever-so-important pumps. And although my heart had
been broken in the past– I’m looking at you, BCAAs– as more and more research has come out, I’ve realized citrulline malate actually packs some impressive benefits. To understand how citrulline malate works, we need to talk about a couple processes that happen within the body. The urea cycle and the nitric oxide cycle. First, the urea cycle. When you perform an intense activity, ammonia levels in the blood increase, especially so when you
perform intense activity that requires high amounts of strength. Aside from ammonia being quite toxic, this is actually really not
a good thing for performance, because high levels of ammonia act as a signal for muscle fatigue. When ammonia builds up,
it inhibits the conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA,
which disrupts the systems which our body uses to create ATP energy and power our muscle contractions. Luckily, our body has a system
to eliminate this ammonia, which is so detrimental to
our bodies and performance. This cycle is called the urea cycle, and as the name suggests,
it exists in our body to transform this toxic
and problematic ammonia to a comparatively
less-toxic substance: urea. After the cycle, urea then gets sent to your kidneys through the blood, and from there is excreted
through your urine. The urea cycle relies
on three amino acids: citrulline, ornithine, and arginine. Here’s how it works. Quick bio. In the mitochondria of a liver cell, ammonium is turned into
carbamoyl phosphate, with the help of some ATP and CO2. Ornithine combines with
that to form citrulline. Hey, wasn’t that what we
were supplementing, though? Don’t worry, I’ll get to that. Anyway, the citrulline then
leaves the mitochondria, combines with aspartate,
and forms arginosuccinate, which then transforms again into arginine. And finally, an enzyme acts on that, turning it into two things: ornithine, to feed back into
the cycle and do it again, and urea, which leaves your
body in the form of pee. Now that this ornithine is back, it can go back into the
mitochondria, grab another ammonia, which technically is packaged up for it as carbamoyl phosphate,
and do it all again. The limiting factor here, though, is the available ornithine. The more ornithine,
the faster the body can clear away that fatigue-inducing ammonia. Before we can see how citrulline ties all of this together and
turbo-charges the system, we need to look at one other
system: the nitric oxide cycle. In the nitric oxide cycle,
that same amino acid, arginine, converts into citrulline,
and in the process, gives off some nitric oxide
and, via some enzymes, it turns it into arginosuccinate, and then back into arginine. Nitric oxide is important for signaling to increase blood flow, which
helps with that pump effect. I know what you’re saying at this point. “Well, arginine is both a precursor to “a system that clears away ammonia, “and it is required to
release nitric oxide, “which helps with blood flow and pumps. “So why are we talking
about citrulline malate?” Well, here’s the thing: the
standard pre-workout dose of L-arginine is three to six grams. But the bioavailability (in other words, the body’s ability to digest
and use it) is very poor. What does get digested leads to a sudden spike and drop in levels. And what’s worse, taking more than ten grams of arginine at once can result in gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Unlike taking an arginine
supplement, though, citrulline is very
bioavailable when taken, and because it gets immediately converted into arginine in the kidneys, amazingly, citrulline is better able to increase arginine levels
than arginine itself. This increase also comes in the form of a more controlled release. Because supplemental citrulline is turned into arginine in the kidneys, it can double arginine levels. And since arginine
converts into ornithine, it also was found to
double ornithine levels. So, what are the
implications of all of this? Studies have found that taking
an L-citrulline supplement can improve physical work output, endurance, and reduce fatigue. In one of these studies,
participants lifted 80% of their bench and
leg press one-rep max, and they then performed multiple sets, with each one going to failure. One group took eight grams
of citrulline malate, while another group consumed a placebo. The group that consumed
the citrulline malate performed significantly more reps, at a self-reported lower RPE. One criticism with this
study, though, is that they were only given one
minute of rest between sets. Which, anyone who powerlifts knows, is much shorter than a
standard rest between sets. In two other studies, though,
similar increases were found. In both of these studies,
participants took a three-minute rest between sets. In all of these studies,
increases came over time and were much more
noticeable in later sets. For example, in one of the
studies on citrulline malate, it was noticed that
while 73% of the subjects reported non-response on set one, all subjects reported
response on set eight. Increases in nitric oxide are
more difficult to measure. However, studies have noted
an increase in the biomarkers, which would suggest an increase
in nitric oxide levels. This goes along with people who anecdotally report feeling
a better pump effect. Also notably, citrulline
malate seems to have a profound effect in reducing delayed-onset muscle
soreness, also called DOMS, of which there was a
reduction seen of 40%. Sort of like the real reduction we’ve seen of Dom on YouTube. Which is a perfect segue
into the final benefit. In men with erectile
dysfunction who were given just 1.5 grams of citrulline per day, after one month, half
reported a major improvement in the quality of their erections. And on that note, it’s time to end. I hope you enjoyed that quick breakdown on citrulline malate. Let me know which topic you’d
like me to explore next. Until next time, D-Man signing off. (peaceful piano music)

Randall Smitham

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