September 22, 2019
  • 11:53 am Dr. Sarah Hallberg: How do keto and the Virta Treatment impact cardiovascular risk and cholesterol?
  • 10:52 am Carb Free Konjac Miracle Noodles! Keto Shirataki Pasta!
  • 9:51 am Le SEUL MOYEN de PERDRE DU GRAS et PRENDRE DU MUSCLE 🔥
  • 8:51 am Sandra Bullock Had a Crush on ‘Speed’ Co-Star Keanu Reeves
  • 6:52 am Orange Leaf Frozen Yogurt: Keto Smoothie Tasting
Edible Education 101: Personalized Health, Nutrition, and the Microbiome with Christopher Gardner


MAN: GOOD EVENING. WELCOME BACK TO EDIBLE EDUCATION
101. IT HAS BEEN A LIVELY WEEK. I FEEL LIKE WE ARE IN THE MIDST
OF MAKING HISTORY IN THIS CLASS. EACH WEEK YOU HAVE THE
OPPORTUNITY TO HEAR FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE INFLUENCING, NOT ONLY
THE FUTURE OF FOOD, BUT IN SOME WAYS THE NATIONAL DEBATE. QUICK REMINDER THAT THIS IS A
TECHNOLOGY FREE ZONE. IF YOU HAVE YOUR LAP TOP OUT WE
APPRECIATE THAT YOU PUT IT AWAY IN TIME FOR OUR SPEAKERS. THE SPEAKERS WHO ARE STILL
WORKING ON THEIR SLIDES HAVE THE PERMISSION TO USE THEIR
MACHINES, BUT THE REST OF YOU PLEASE TURN IT OFF. YOU WILL RECALL ONE OF THE
THEMES OF THIS CLASS IS TO DEVELOP OUR X-RAY VISION AND TO
START SEEING TRANSPARENTLY INTO THE NATURE OF THINGS IN THE FOOD
SYSTEM TO UNDERSTAND HOW EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED. SO LAST WEEK YOU REMEMBER WITH
SARU SHE GAVE US SOME INSIGHT AND SOME VISION INTO THE REALM
OF RESTAURANT LABOR AND WORKERS AND THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LOW
WAGES AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT. THE FIRST WEEK ALICE WATERS
TALKED TO US A LOT ABOUT THE VALUES OF THE SLOW FOOD MOVEMENT
AND WE GOT A VIEW INTO HOW THAT MANIFESTS IN TERMS OF THINGS
LIKE TERMINOLOGY AND LABELLING. TONIGHT WE ARE GOING TO BE USING
OUR X-RAY VISION TO BE LOOKING INSIDE THE HUMAN BODY AND INTO
THE MICROBIOME, THIS INCREDIBLE ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA THAT WE ARE
LEARNING SO MUCH ABOUT. TONIGHT WE HAVE THREE GENTLEMEN
WHO ARE REALLY DEFINING AND LEADING THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
IN THIS FIELD. IF YOU DID YOUR READING THIS
WEEK YOU WILL NOTE THEY ARE CELEBRATED IN RECENT ARTICLES,
BOOKS, FILMS. THESE ARE THE PEOPLE THAT ARE
MAKING HEADLINES THAT I AM REALLY GRATEFUL FOR THEIR
COLLEGIALITY DRIVING EAST LIKE UC DAVIS AND PLACES SOUTH LIKE
STANFORD UNIVERSITY. IN A MINUTE I AM GOING TO
INTRODUCE YOU TO OUR SPEAKERS, PROFESSOR BRUCE GERMAN,
PROFESSOR CHRIS GARDENER AND PROFESSOR JUSTIN SONNENBERG. MAN: ACCORDING TO JUSTIN MAC IS
NAME OF THE POPULAR MAKEUP STORE, B, MCDONALD’S BEST
SELLING BURGER, C, MICRO ACCESSIBLE CARBOHYDRATE. ANY GUESSES? SEE WHO IS HERE TONIGHT? WOMAN: IF YOU ANSWER IN THE
FIRST 10 SECONDS… (INAUDIBLE). MAN: THIS IS A GIVE AWAY. WHAT DO YOU GOT? SEE WHO IS REALLY PAYING
ATTENTION HERE. FOR YOU MAKEUP HOUNDS HERE’S THE
NEXT QUESTION. LET’S SWITCH BACK. ACCORDING TO BRUCE GERMAN, HMO
MEANS, HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION. B, HUMAN YOKE OLIGOSACCHARIDES
OR C HUMAN MEDICAL OFFICER. OKAY. A FEW OF YOU DIDN’T DO THE
READING. 19 OF YOU TO BE EXACT. CONGRATULATIONS TO THOSE THAT
GOT IT RIGHT. AND THE THIRD QUESTION TONIGHT
TO RESTORE YOUR GUT BACTERIA, THIS IS A BONUS QUESTION, IT IS
BEST TO A, FAST FOR THREE-DAYS, B, TAKE HIGH FIBER PROBIOTIC
SUPPLEMENTS OR C EAT LOTS OF FIBER RICH FOODS? AB OR C? THE RIGHT ANSWER IS C.
MOST OF YOU GOT THAT RIGHT. THANK YOU FOR COMING TONIGHT. THANK YOU FOR PLAYING. LET’S GO BACK. SO, YOU ARE ALL EXCITED ABOUT
THIS, I KNOW, YOUR FIRST ASSIGNMENT HAS BEEN DEFINED AND
DESIGNED. I WANT TO GO OVER IT WITH YOU
REAL QUICKLY. I AM GOING TO DO IT TO AVOID YOU
ASKING TO ASK THE READERS AND GRADUATE STUDENT INSTRUCTORS
QUESTIONS DURING THE WEEK. A FEW OF YOU IN THIS CLASS CARE
ABOUT YOUR GRADE. PAY CLOSE ATTENTION NOW AND I
WILL GIVE YOU THE DETAILS. THE PAPER IS GOING TO BE DUE AT
6:00 P.M. ON MARCH 1ST. IT IS TO BE 3 TO 4 PAGES IN
LENGTH AND WE HAVE GIVEN YOU THE TYPING SPECIFICATIONS IN THE
RUBRIC. THE ASSIGNMENT AND THE RUBRIC
ARE POSTED ON B COURSES. THIS PAPER COUNTS FOR 25 PERCENT
OF YOUR GRADE. IT’S IMPORTANT. NO LATER THAN 6:00 P.M. MARCH 1ST. PAPERS WILL BE MARKED LATE. THE TIME STAMP ON B COURSE IS
AFTER 6:00 P.M. NO EXCEPTIONS. NO EXCEPTIONS. LATE PAPERS WILL RECEIVE A
ONE-THIRD LETTER REDUCTION FOR EACH DAY THEY ARE LATE. IF YOU ASK THE READERS OR GSI
THIS QUESTION YOU WILL ALSO RECEIVE A ONE-THIRD LETTER
REDUCTION TO YOUR GRADE. CAN I READ YOU THE QUESTION? I THINK YOU WILL LIKE THIS. THIS IS GOING TO BE A THINKING
PAPER. HERE IT IS. CALCULATE THE BENEFITS AND
CONSEQUENCES OF YOUR CHOICES. THAT IS SORT OF THE THEME OF
THIS PAPER. CALCULATE THE BENEFITS AND
CONSEQUENCES OF YOUR CHOICES. YOUR AUNT GLORIA HAS JUST LEFT
YOU $250,000 IN HER WILL WITH INSTRUCTIONS TO OPEN AN
INNOVATIVE RESTAURANT THAT SERVES DELICIOUS FOOD IN A
HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE MANNER. YOUR CHALLENGE IS TO DESIGN AND
DESCRIBE YOUR NEW BUSINESS IN VIVID MOUTH WATERING DETAIL. FIRST IDENTIFY AND DEFINE THREE
CORE VALUES THAT YOU THINK WILL MAKE THE RESTAURANT AN
OVERWHELMING SUCCESS. TELL US THE STORY OF YOUR
RESTAURANT, DESCRIBE IT AND WHAT MAKES IT DIFFERENT FROM OTHER
OFFERINGS. DEFINE THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND
CULTURAL DETAILS OF THE CAR GET CUSTOMER. YOU CAN FIND THE NAME AND
PRESCRIBED LOCATION, ET CETERA. BE SURE TO EXPLAIN HOW THE CORE
VALUES YOU CHOOSE WILL CONTRIBUTE TO MAKING THE
RESTAURANT SUCCESSFUL. IDENTIFY THE BENEFITS,
IMPLICATIONS OR UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF THE VALUES YOU
CHOOSE TO LIVE BY IN YOUR RESTAURANT, I.E., THE IMPACT ON
COSTS, SIZE OF CUSTOMER BASE, LIMITATIONS OF SUPPLY LABOR ANY
OTHER COMMUNITY SOCIETAL OR PLANETARY IMPACT. THAT’S THE FIRST PART. SECOND PART, NEXT, CHOOSE ONE
SIMPLE ITEM FROM YOUR NEW MENU AND DESCRIBE IT IN PRECISE
FACTUAL DETAIL. TRACE AND DESCRIBE THE COMPLETE
SUPPLY CHAIN OF INGREDIENTS THAT MAKE UP THIS DISH INCLUDING HOW
AND WHERE AND BY WHOM THE INGREDIENTS ARE PRODUCED. ALSO DEFINE AND DESCRIBE ANY AND
ALL IMPLICATIONS FOR PERSONAL WELL-BEING AND PLANETARY
SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE DISH YOU SELECTED. THAT WILL GIVE YOU SOMETHING TO
THINK ABOUT. WE WANT YOU TO HAVE FUN WITH
THIS. YOU ARE SUPPOSED TO USE YOUR
IMAGINATION. WE WANTED YOU TO BRING SOME KIND
OF DESIGN INSIGHT TO THE TYPE OF RESTAURANT AND THE TYPE OF
CUSTOMER THAT YOU WANT TO SERVE, AND ALSO PROBABLY MOST
IMPORTANTLY, HOW YOU ARE GOING TO DO IT AND THE VALUES YOU
BRING TO GUIDE THOSE CHOICES. SO QUICK REVIEW. WE ARE ALREADY IN WEEK NUMBER 5. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. WE HAVE FIVE AMAZING LECTURERS. WE HEARD FROM ALICE THE STANDARD
BEARER FROM THIS COURSE AND THIS FOOD MOVEMENT. ROBERT REICH WHO WAS HERE REALLY
COMPLEMENTED ALICE’S THEME SOMEBODY WHO DID INSPIRE THE
FOOD MOVEMENT. WE HAD MAS MASUMOTO, THIRD
GENERATION FAMILY FARMER FROM THE CENTRAL VALLEY. I DON’T KNOW IF YOU HAVE SEEN
ROBERT REICH’S RESISTANCE REPORT, BUT HE IS LIVE EVERY DAY
AT 5:00. IT’S AN AMAZING WAY TO GET THE
WEEK’S OR THE DAY’S NEWS. WE HAD NAOMI STARKMAN FROM CIVIL
EATS JOIN US TO TALK ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF A FREE AND
INDEPENDENCE PRESS. WE ARE SEEING THAT PLAY OUT
EVERY DAY. LAST WEEK WE HAD SARU JAYARAMAN
FROM BERKELEY TALKING ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE TO PAYING ATTENTION
TO FAIR WAGES AND RESTAURANT OWNERS. WE HEARD SARU TALK ABOUT ANDREW
PUZDER THE FORMER CHAIRMAN OF CKE RESTAURANTS AND HE HAS
WITHDRAWN HIS NOMINATION FOR LABOR SECRETARY, WHICH HAS HUGE
IMPACTS. YOU CAN APPLAUD. IT’S OKAY. IT IS BERKELEY (APPLAUSE). WE ARE LIVING IN A HISTORIC
TIME. THIS CLASS, IT’S CONTENT, IT’S
QUESTIONS, THE ETHICS OF EATING THAT ARE COMING FORTH FOR US ALL
ARE PLAYING OUT FRONT AND CENTER ON BOTH THE NATIONAL AND GLOBAL
STAGE WHILE THE CLASS IS UNFOLDING. SAME THING FOR TONIGHT, I THINK
WE ARE REALLY ON THE CUSP OF A GREAT TRANSFORMATION BOTH IN
NUTRITION AND MEDICINE. WE NOW HAVE THE ABILITY TO BEGIN
TO SEE WITHIN OURSELVES AND HOW OUR PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP TO
FOOD AND THE ENVIRONMENT COMES INTO BEING FROM BEFORE BIRTH ALL
OF THE WAY THROUGH OUR LIVES, THE THREE GENTLEMEN HERE AS I
MENTIONED ARE REALLY DEFINING THIS FIELD. IT IS A GREAT PLEASURE TO HAVE
THEM WITH US TODAY. I AM GOING TO ASK EACH OF THEM
TO SPEAK BRIEFLY. THEY COULD EACH SPEAK FOR THE
ENTIRE CLASS. I THINK YOU WILL WANT THEM TO. IN AN EFFORT TO KIND OF GIVE YOU
A RAPID CONDENSED ORIENTATION TO THIS FASCINATING SUBJECT I AM
GOING TO INVITE BRUCE TO COME UP FIRST AND GIVE US A BRIEF
HISTORY OF NUTRITION SIGNS. WITHOUT FURTHER ADIEU PLEASE
WELCOME BRUCE GERMAN TO THE STAGE. (APPLAUSE)
MAN: I AM DELIGHTED TO HEAR ACTUALLY FROM —
MAN: IS YOUR MICROPHONE ON? MAN: I AM ON. OKAY. I WILL BE TALKING ABOUT DAVIS. HOPEFULLY YOU WILL APPRECIATE BY
THE TIME I AM DONE WE ARE NOT JUST A SPORTS TEAM THAT
EVERYBODY WANTS TO HAVE AS THEIR HOMECOMING OPPONENT. I AM GOING TO GIVE YOU A LITTLE
BIT OF BACKGROUND HOW WE GOT TO WHERE WE ARE, AND HOW YOU ALL
AND THE FOOD INDUSTRY GOT WHERE IT IS. ACTUALLY THE STORY IS A
SPECTACULAR SUCCESS. THE 20TH CENTURY WAS DEFINED
SCIENTIFICALLY AND INDUSTRIALLY BY BASICALLY A SCIENTIFIC DEAL
IN CHEMISTRY. IT WAS A SPECTACULAR SUCCESS
STORY. WE LEARNED ABOUT THE WORLD
AROUND US IN MOLECULAR DETAIL AND WE BROUGHT THAT KNOWLEDGE IN
ESSENCE TO THE WORLD AROUND US AND CHANGED THE HUMAN CONDITION
IN AN UNPRECEDENTED WAY AND ACTUALLY, YOU ARE SITTING ON
WHERE WE ARE WATCHING CHEMISTRY IN ACTION. HOW DOES THAT WORK? AT ITS CORE CHEMISTRY IS A
REDUCTION OF SCIENCE. THE PRINCIPLE OF CHEMISTRY YOU
TAKE THINGS APART IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE INDIVIDUAL
ELEMENTS AND PUT THEM BACK TOGETHER. THAT IS A WONDERFUL MODEL FOR
SCIENCE AND TURNS OUT IT IS A WONDERFUL MODEL FOR
INDUSTRIALIZING. WHEN YOU TAKE THINGS APART,
ISOLATE THEM, PURIFY THEM, YOU CAN PREDICT HOW THEY ARE GOING
TO BEHAVE. THAT’S HOW I KNOW HOW A MATERIAL
IS GOING TO BEHAVE. THAT’S THE BASIS OF THE
SPECTACULAR SUCCESS. A LOT OF THINGS THAT HAVE
CHANGED THAT PERHAPS ARE ONE OF THE GREAT SUCCESSES WAS BY
TAKING FOOD APART. TAKING FOOD APART INTO ITS
COMPONENT MOLECULES, NUTRITION AT ITS EARLY STAGES COULD USE
WHAT ENGINEERS CALL A FAULT MODEL. FAULT MODEL IS YOU TAKE A
COMPLEX SYSTEM OF ART, PUT IT BACK TOGETHER AND TAKE ONE THING
AWAY. IF THAT COMPONENT WAS NECESSARY
THEN THE SYSTEM BASICALLY FAILS. THAT PRINCIPLE WAS USED FOR THE
MOLECULES OF FOOD. NOW WE KNOW WITH SCIENTIFIC
KNOWLEDGE EVERY SINGLE MOLECULE WE NEED TO GROW, REPRODUCE. EVERY MINERAL, EVERY AMINO ACID
AND FATTY ACID IS ACTUALLY KNOWN. OF THE HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS OF
POSSIBLE MOLECULES WE KNOW EVERY SINGLE ONE IS UNIQUE. THAT’S A SPECTACULAR SCIENTIFIC
FEAT. THEY ARE TRYING TO LEARN HOW
MANY PLANETS ARE IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. THAT IS A SPECTACULAR
ACHIEVEMENT. YOU DON’T EVEN APPRECIATE HOW
SPECTACULAR. THAT IS TO SAY, I WOULD HAZARD A
GUESS IF I ASKED ANY OF YOU HOW OFTEN YOU WAKE UP IN THE MORNING
AND GO TO THE CLASS AND CHECK YOUR NECK TO SEE HOW YOUR GOITER
IS DOING. MANY OF YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT A
GOITER IS. 100 YEARS AGO PEOPLE AT YOUR AGE
WOULD BE GENUINELY WORRIED. YOU SEE PEOPLE WITH THIS
HORRIFIC GENUINE SWELLING DUE TO IODINE DEFICIENCY. NOT ONLY HAVE WE ELIMINATED THE
DISEASES, WE HAVE ELIMINATED THEM FROM OUR MENTALITY. WE DON’T EVEN THINK ABOUT THEM. WE DON’T WORRY ABOUT THEM. THAT’S THE GREAT SUCCESS, A
MAGNIFICENT ACHIEVEMENT. THEY ARE GONE AND YOU DON’T
WORRY ABOUT THEM. WHAT A WONDERFUL SCIENTIFIC
ACHIEVEMENT. HOW IS IT POSSIBLE TO BRING THAT
KNOWLEDGE INTO PRACTICE? WHEN SOCIETY ACQUIRES KNOWLEDGE
THERE’S BASICALLY TWO-WAYS YOU CAN DELIVER THAT TO SOCIETY. ONE YOU PUT IT IN EDUCATION K TO
12. YOU PUT IT IN THE CURRICULUM,
YOU TEACH KIDS. YOU TEST THEM. IF THEY DON’T KNOW IT, THEY
DON’T PASS. WE CAN EDUCATE THE POPULATION
WELL. OR YOU CAN INDUSTRIALIZE, PUT IT
IN THE WORLD AROUND THEM AND THEY GET IT EVEN IF THEY DON’T
KNOW IT. THE DECISION FOR ESSENTIAL
NUTRIENTS WAS TO PUT IT INTO THE WORLD AROUND YOU. WE DON’T TEACH PEOPLE WHERE THEY
GET IODINE OR IODIZED SALT. ABSOLUTELY BRILLIANT PUBLIC
HEALTH STRATEGY. IN FACT YOU CAN GET A NUTRIENT
DEFICIENT DISEASE AT AN AGE BEFORE YOU CAN BE EDUCATED. THE IDEA OF NUTRIFYING THE FOOD
SUPPLY WAS A WONDERFUL ONE. WE ARE NOT THE SAME. STAR WARS, DOES LIAM NISSAN AND
NATALIE PORTMAN HAVE THE SAME NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT? OF COURSE NOT. WHY DON’T WE PERSONALIZE? WHY DON’T WE SAY TO EVERYONE THE
EXACT AMOUNT THEY NEED. A REMARKABLE BIOLOGICAL
PROPERTY. IF YOU DON’T GET ENOUGH OF THE
NUTRIENTS YOU GET A DEFICIENCY. EVERYBODY. IF YOU GET ENOUGH WHAT HAPPENS
IF I TAKE MORE THAN I NEED, TWICE AS MUCH VITAMIN C, FIVE
TIMES AS MUCH, 10 TIMES AS MUCH, 100 TIMES OF VITAMIN C THAT I
NEED WHAT HAPPENS IS I PEE AND POO OUT THE EXCESS. IT IS A REMARKABLE BIOLOGICAL
PROCESS AND WHAT IT MAKES POSSIBLE IS A STRATEGY FOR
PUBLIC HEALTH. HOW DO I MAKE SURE EVERYBODY
GETS ENOUGH? I OVERDOSE EVERYBODY. EVERYBODY GETS MORE THAN THEY
NEED. LIAM GETS ALL HE NEEDS AND
NATALIE PORTMAN JUST PEES OUT THE EXCESS. A WONDERFUL STRATEGY. WHAT THAT MEANT WAS YOU DIDN’T
NEED TO INDIVIDUALIZE YOU CAN GET THE NUTRITION DEFICIENCY
DISEASE IS GONE. MAGNIFICENT ACHIEVEMENT. BUT THERE WERE CONSEQUENCES. BECAUSE WE IN ESSENCE CHOOSE NOT
TO EDUCATE, DIET AND HEALTH BECAME AN ELECTIVE. WE ALL KNOW WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT
IS ELECTIVE. PEOPLE ELECT NOT TO TAKE IT. THE FOOD SUPPLY FREE FROM THE
WORRY ABOUT ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY DISEASES, MARKETPLACE
DROVE IN ESSENCE THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOOD SUPPLY BASED ON ONE
DOMINATING CRITERIA. DELICIOUS. YOU ARE GOING TO COMPETE IN THE
MARKETPLACE IN THE FOOD YOU BETTER BE DELICIOUS. IF YOU ARE NOT DELICIOUS YOU
CAN’T COMPETE. THE FOOD SUPPLY IS GETTING MORE
AND MORE AND MORE DELICIOUS. THAT’S THE KEY CRITERIA ON WHICH
WE CHOOSE. SO WE ARE AN UNEDUCATED
POPULATION IN THIS HUGE HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT. WHAT A SURPRISE WE ARE NOT
MAKING GOOD DECISIONS. THAT’S BASICALLY THE ENVIRONMENT
THAT THIS GREAT SUCCESS OF CHEMISTRY HAS LEFT US WITH. WE SHOULD BE THE HEALTHIEST
PEOPLE IN HUMAN HISTORY. WE KNOW MORE ABOUT HEALTH. WE INVEST MORE. INTERESTINGLY, IN SOME CRITERIA
WE ARE SPECTACULARLY HEALTHY. YOU WILL ALL LIVE. YOU WILL ALL LIVE A LONG LIFE. THE PROBLEM IS THE QUALITY OF
THAT LIFE ISN’T THE THING. IN FACT, SOME PEOPLE ARE
SPECTACULARLY HEALTHY. GARY AND ROGER, THEY ARE BOTH
OVER 100. SPECTACULAR SUCCESS. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE AVERAGE
PERSON TODAY IS OVER WEIGHT, PREDIABETIC, HYPERTENSIVE AND
GENUINELY COMPROMISED HEALTH LIFE BECAUSE OF THE DIET. WE ARE NOW SEEING PEOPLE LIVING
LONGER BUT THEIR HEALTH QUALITY IS DETERIORATING. THE EPIDEMICS OF DISEASES ARE
NONCOMMUTATIVE BUT THEY ARE DEBILITATIVE. THE HEALTH IS DETERIORATING FOR
THE POPULATION, AGRICULTURE ITSELF, IT’S VALUE PROPOSITION
IS IN A STATE OF CHAOS, THERE’S NO MONEY IN IT, IT IS THE LOWEST
PAID ENTERPRISE EVEN THOUGH IT IS THE WORLD’S LARGEST. THERE’S NOT MONEY IN IT TO PAY
THE WORKERS A VIABLE WAGE AND IT IS NOT SUSTAINABLE. PERHAPS THE BEST EXAMPLE OF THIS
IS MILK. IF I GO THROUGH THE SAN
FRANCISCO AIRPORT, GO THROUGH SECURITY YOU TAKE AWAY MY
BEVERAGE. I GO THROUGH SECURITY, WHAT’S
THE FIRST THING I ENCOUNTER? A KIOSK TO SELL ME SINGLE
SERVING BEVERAGES. IN ESSENCE THE AIRPORT SINGLE
SERVING MILK AND WATER ARE SIDE BY SIDE. WHAT’S CHEAPER? THE MILK. CALIFORNIA DAIRY FARMERS ARE
LOWERING THE VALUE OF WATER BY PUTTING IT THROUGH THE COW. THAT’S WHAT AGRICULTURE HAS
BECOME, THIS MASSIVE COST DRIVEN ENTERPRISE. SOME SCIENTISTS ARE STUCK IN THE
REDUCTIONIST PHARMACEUTICAL BASED DISEASE CENTERED MODEL. WAIT UNTIL YOUR SICK TO TRY TO
KILL YOU. SCIENCE IS A GREAT EMBARRASSMENT
FOR 70 YEARS. WE HAVE INVESTED NOT IN HEALTH,
BUT IN THE DISEASES OF MIDDLE AGED RICH MEN. THAT’S THE EMBARRASSMENT. WHAT WE WOULD LIKE IS TO CHANGE
THAT. WE WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO IN
ESSENCE RECOMMEND DIET, LIFESTYLE, LITERALLY PREVENT
DISEASE, IMPROVE YOUR HEALTH. GREAT IDEA. THE PROBLEM IS WE DON’T KNOW HOW
TO DO IT. WE HAVE NO IDEA LITERALLY HOW TO
INTERVENE INTO HELPING PEOPLE TO MAKE THEM HEALTHIER. IF I AM GOING TO PREVENT DISEASE
I LITERALLY HAVE TO MAKE HEALTHY PEOPLE HEALTHIER IN ALL ASPECTS. IF I GET A DIET THAT LOWERS THE
RISK OF ONE THING BUT IN SO DOING INCREASES THE RISK OF
ANOTHER I HAVEN’T MADE THEM HEALTHIER AT ALL. WHAT ARE THE PROCESSES, THE
STRUCTURES THE PATHWAYS ON WHICH WE WORK SO THAT THEY GET BETTER? WE DON’T KNOW HOW TO DO THAT. THERE ARE THREE REAL PROBLEMS
WITH PREVENTION, ONE EFFICACY. WHAT PART TO I ACT UPON TO MAKE
HEALTHY PEOPLE HEALTHIER. SECOND, SAFETY. IT HAS TO BE COMPLETELY SAFE. AGAIN, IF IT MAKES A PART OF THE
POPULATION LESS SAFE IT CAN’T SUCCEED. FINALLY THE VALUE. HOW MUCH ARE YOU GOING TO PAY
FOR THE DISEASE YOU ARE NEVER GOING TO GET? HOW MUCH WOULD YOU PAY FOR THAT
IRON TODAY? IRONICALLY YOU PAY MORE FOR SALT
THAT DOESN’T HAVE IODINE. THERE ARE REAL PROBLEMS GOING
FORWARD WITH PREVENTION. WE DON’T KNOW WHERE WE ARE
GOING, WE DON’T KNOW HOW TO GET THERE AND WE NEED A NEW MODEL. THAT’S IN ESSENCE THE FRAMEWORK
WE BEGAN WITH THE RESEARCH AT UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS. THERE ARE NEW TOOLS COMING TO
FOOD. IN FACT, THE SCIENCE OF THE 21ST
CENTURY IS BIOLOGY. BIOLOGY IS AN INTEGRATIVE
SCIENCE. YOU LOOK AT THE COMPLEXITY OF
ORGANISMS, ECOSYSTEMS, IT RECOGNIZES THE COMPLEXITIES OF
INDIVIDUALS, THAT’S THE NEW SIGNS. WE ARE ALREADY INDUSTRIALIZING
IT. IF YOU ATE YOGURT TODAY YOU PAID
TO CONSUME A LIVING ORGANISM. CHEMISTRY IS NOW WORKING AT
BIOLOGY IN ACCURATE QUANTITATIVE DETAILS. THE MATH IS DIFFERENT. OR NOT. SO THE NEW MATH IS A MATH OF BIG
DATA. THE DATA OF LARGE DATA BASES
INTEGRATIVE REMOTELY THAT IS CHANGING THE WORLD AND ALREADY
BRINGING IT INTO PRACTICE. IF YOU USED GOOGLE MAPS TO GET
HERE YOU ARE ALREADY USING BIG DATA. THIS IS NOT AN IMAGE. THIS REQUIRES
THREE-DIMENSIONALLY MAGNETIC FIELD. IT IS A DATA FILE. THAT MEANS YOU CAN SEND THAT
DATA FILE TO ANY ONE YOU WANT. THAT’S MY HEART. IT’S A DATA FILE. I SEND IT TO A FRIEND OF MINE
DR. FRIEDRICH A CARDIOLOGIST. TURNS OUT I HAVE A SMALL SCAR IN
THE UPPER LEFT WHERE SUSAN SCOTT BROKE MY HEART IN THE 8TH GRADE. HE’S ABLE WITH HIS DATA FILE
REMOTELY TO TELL ME HOW MY HEART IS DOING. MATH HAS COMPLETELY CHANGED,
DON’T QUIT MATH. FINALLY ENGINEERING. ENGINEERING IS NO LONGER THE
ENGINEERING OF MASSIVE SOYBEANS. IT IS SMALL FAST DEVICES. THOSE ARE THE TOOL SETS WE ARE
BRINGING TO DIET AND HEALTH. BIOLOGY IS ALL ABOUT GNOMES. THEY HAVE MASSIVE SEQUENCING
ORGANISMS. THEY HAVE THE LARGEST DEPOSITORY
OF GNOMES IN THE WORLD AT UC DAVIS. WE HAVE YEAST, MOLD, ALLERGY,
INSECTS, PLANTS, ANIMALS. WE HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ENTIRE
BIO AGAIN NET CAL TRUTH. WE CAN ASK A SIMPLE QUESTION. WHAT INVOLVES OUT OF THE
CONSTANT DARWINIAN PRESSURE TO BE NOURISHING? WHY DON’T WE ASK EVOLUTION, HOW
TO NOURISH, TO BE PROTECTED, PREVENTATIVE AND USE THE GNOMES
TO INTERROGATE THEM AND TELL THEM WHAT YOU NEED. WHEN YOU DO THAT YOU REALIZE
IT’S A WAR OUT THERE. WHAT HAS BEEN THE STRONGEST
SELECTIVE PRESSURE THROUGHOUT EVOLUTION? IT IS TO AVOID BEING EATEN. IF YOU ARE STILL —
(INDISCERNIBLE). MOST OF THE ORGANISMS WE WANT TO
EAT PLANTS ESPECIALLY THEY CAN’T RUN AWAY THEY HAVE DEVELOPED
REMARKABLY CLEVER STRATEGIES TO AVOID BEING EATEN. TOXINS. IF YOU WANT TO GET RID OF YOUR
MAJOR PROFESSOR PLANTS WILL TELL YOU. NOURISHMENT NOT SO MUCH. THERE’S ONLY ONE THING,
LACTATION. THIS WILL REMARKABLE PROCESS
THAT CAME OUT VERY LATE IN EVOLUTION AND IS THE BASIS OF
SPECTACULAR SUCCESS OF MAMMALS. IT IS OUR MODEL. IT IS THE MOTHER INFANT PAIR. MOTHERS LITERALLY DISSOLVE
THEMSELVES TO MAKE MILK. EVERYTHING COSTS THEM. IF THE COMPONENT IN MILK DOESN’T
HELP THE INFANT, THE PRESSURE ON THE MOTHER DRIVES HER OUT OF
EVOLUTION. THE MILK ENCOURAGES THE SUCCESS
OF THAT INFANT RELATIVE TO IT’S GENETICS. IT IS HARD TO IMAGINE ANYTHING
AS A FOOD COMPONENT. THAT DARWINIAN ENGINE OF
NOURISHING INFANTS TO BE HEALTHIER HAS BEEN GOING
GENERATION AFTER GENERATION FOR OVER 200 YEARS. THAT’S OUR MODEL. WE HAVE BEEN TAKING LACTATION
APART FROM MARSUPIALS TO HUMANS TO FIGURE OUT WHAT IS IT WE
SHOULD LEARN FROM THIS EVOLUTIONARYISM. IT IS BECAUSE THEY ARE THINKING
ABOUT FOOD IN GENERAL. LET ME GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE. REMEMBER THE MODEL. THE MOTHER ISN’T THERE. COST OF THE MOTHER IS MASSIVE AT
THE VALUE OF THE INFANT IT WILL BE LOST TO EVOLUTION. IMAGINE OUR SURPRISE TAKING THE
HUMAN MILK APART AND WE FIND OUT THE THIRD MOST ABUNDANT
COMPONENT IN HUMAN MILK IS UNDIGESTIBLE FOR BABY. WHY WOULD MOTHERS DISSOLVE
THEMSELVES SOMETHING THAT THE BABY CAN’T DIGEST. THE FIRST QUESTION IS WHAT IS
IT? ONE OF THE LEADING ANALYTICAL
CHEMISTS IN THE WORLD, HE LITERALLY BUILT AN ANALYTICAL
INSTRUMENT TO TAKE BIOPOLYMERS APART AND STUDY THEM. YOU APPLY THE METHOD TO MILK AND
IT TURNS OUT SUGARS IN POLYMERIC FORMS A SPECIFIC LINK BETWEEN
THE SUGAR. THOSE LINKAGES HAVE NO ENZYMES
IN THE BABY TO BREAK THEM APART SO THE BABY CAN ACCESS THE
SUGAR. THERE’S NOT ONE, THERE’S NOT
TWO, THERE ARE DOZENS OF THEM. IT IS FULL OF THIS MATERIAL. IT IS SPECTACULAR. WE KNOW WHAT IT IS. THE BIG QUESTION OF COURSE IS
WHERE WOULD MOTHERS DO IT? WHAT DOES IT DO? OUR THOUGHT, MY THOUGHT, IF IT
DOESN’T FEED THE BABY IT MUST FEED SOMETHING ELSE. IT MUST FEEDBACK TIER YAW. PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA DAVIS, WORLD FAMOUS MICRO BIOLOGIST HE STUDIES
MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES FROM WINE VATS TO HUMAN INTESTINES. HE HAS A WAY TO MEASURE THE
GROWTH OF BACTERIA SO HE CAN SAY DOES BACTERIA GROW ON HUMAN
MILK. BACTERIA CAN’T BREAK THEM DOWN
ANY MORE THAN THE BABY CAN. HE’S TRYING BACTERIA TO BACTERIA
TO BACTERIA. NOTHING. THEN HE FINDS ONE. WHAT A SURPRISE FROM THE
INTESTINES OF BREAST FED INFANTS. IT IS A VIVID BACTERIA. IT IS DIFFERENT THAN ANY
BACTERIA. 700 GENES DIFFERENT. BUT WHEN WE MAP ALL OF THE
OLIGOSACCHARIDES LINKAGE THE ENZYMES BREAK DOWN EVERY SINGLE
ONE OF THOSE. THIS IS CLEARLY A BACTERIA FULLY
INVOLVED WITH THE OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN MILK. THAT’S THE GENIUS OF MILK. MOTHERS ARE RECRUITING ANOTHER
LIFE FORM TO BABY-SIT THEIR BABIES. THEY ARE MAKING SURE THIS IS THE
ONE THAT GROWS BECAUSE THIS IS THE ONE THEY FEED. WHAT A REMARKABLY INGENIOUS
IDEA. IT IS NOT JUST MOTHERS AND
BABIES UNDER THE SELECTIVE PRESSURE, IT IS THE BACTERIA. WE HAD AN INITIAL CUSTOMER. WHO WOULD NEED THIS? BREAST-FEED, BREAST-FEED,
BREAST-FEED. HEAD OF NEONATOLOGY OF THE
MEDICAL CENTER AT DAVIS, IMAGINE HIS WORLD. HE TAKES BABIES FROM MOTHERS
PREMATURE TYPICALLY BORN BY CESAREAN SECTION. THEY ARE BORN STERILE. THEY GET NO BACTERIA FROM THE
MOTHER. HE PUTS THEM IN AN INCUBATOR
THEY ACQUIRE BACTERIA THAT WILL LIVE WITH THEM FOR THE REST OF
THEIR LIVES. WHY WHERE IS IT COMING FROM? THE HOSPITAL. IT IS NOT THE WAY YOU WANT TO
START LIFE. CAN WE TRY THE STRATEGY YOU
DISCOVERED? WE HAVE HUMAN MILK AND
OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND THE PREMATURE BABIES FILL UP AND
THEY ARE PROTECTED. CLEARLY THE STRATEGY WORKS AND
NEEDS TO BE BROUGHT TO PRACTICE. THIS NEEDS TO BE IN ESSENCE A
PRODUCT FOR THE NICU’S AROUND THE COUNTRY WE WANT THE FACULTY
INVOLVED TO DO THIS. WHILE WE WERE DOING IT WE BEGAN
TO REALIZE IF YOU WANT TO UNDERSTAND A MICROBIAL COMMUNITY
YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND WHO IS THERE, WHAT IS THE BACTERIA WHAT
ARE THEY EATING AND WHAT ARE THEY MAKING? THE WAY WE HAVE BEEN TAUGHT
ABOUT MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IS A LITTLE BIT SIMPLISTIC. YOU PORTRAY MICROBIAL
COMMUNITIES AS IF THEY WERE GARDENS OR LOVELY FORESTS. NO, THOSE ARE PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC
ECOSYSTEMS. THEY GET ENERGY FROM THE LIGHTS. YOU HAVE TO REACH UP. THAT’S NOT WHAT IS IN YOUR
INTESTINES. IT IS DARK AND WET AND
ANAEROBIC. THEY EAT EACH OTHER. IT IS MUCH MORE APPROPRIATE TO
THINK OF THIS AS A CARNIVOROUS OPEN ZOO. IT RECRUITS A VERY SPECIFIC AND
PROTECTIVE BACTERIA AND NOURISHING IT EVERY DAY. MAMMALS DEVIL OF OPED THIS
PRACTICE OF LIVE BIRTH. ONE OF THE ADVANTAGES AT THE
BIRTH PROCESS THE BACTERIA OF THE MOTHER TRANSFERRED TO THE
INFANT. NOW THAT WE APPRECIATE THAT, THE
WHOLE BIRTH PROCESS IS STARTING TO MAKE SENSE. WE COMICALLY WATCH CHILDREN
WATCHING THE BIRTH THEY SAY OH DAD, LOOK, THE MOTHER IS
CLEANING THE BABY. SHE IS LICKING HER BABY ALL
OVER, BUT TECHNICALLY SHE IS NOT CLEANING. SHE IS MAKING SURE THAT ALL OF
HER BACTERIA TRANSFER OVER. TURNS OUT IT IS A VERY GOOD
IDEA. INADVERTENTLY, ANTIBIOTICS,
CESAREAN SECTION INFANT FORMULA HAS BEEN BREAKING THAT CHAIN. NOT GOOD NEWS. WE HAVE BEEN LOOKING TO COHORTS
NOW AROUND THE WORLD. IT TURNS OUT WHERE MODERN
MEDICINE HAS GONE WITH THE BEST INTENTIONS, REMEMBER,
ANTIBIOTICS SAME MORE ANIMALS THAN ANY ONE IN HISTORY. TAKE MOTHERS AND BABIES. THESE ARE VERY NECESSARY
VALUABLE TREATMENT BUT THEY HAVE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES. WHERE YOU LOOK WHERE MODERN
MEDICINE HAS BEEN MOST SUCCESSFUL THE PERCENTAGE OF
BABIES THAT REQUIRE THE RIGHT BACTERIA ARE GETTING LESS AND
LESS. WE TRIED A CLINICAL TEST. IF YOU TAKE BABIES IN THE
GREATER SACRAMENTO AREA BORN BY C SECTION OR NORMAL BIRTH, THEY
ACQUIRE THE BACTERIA, WE FOUND NONE OF THEM DID. IF WE GIVE THEM THE BACTERIA AS
A LIVE PRODUCT WITHIN 48-HOURS THAT BACTERIA GROWS AND GROWS
AND MULTIPLIES. IT GROWS SPECTACULAR. IT LITERALLY COMPLETELY
DOMINATES THE ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITIES OF THAT BABY. IN FACT, IT PUSHES ALL OF THE
OTHER UNPLEASANT BACTERIA OUT. OVER 80 PERCENT OF THE BIO MASS
IS A SINGLE CRITERIA. IT IS HELPING BABIES GET RID OF
ALL OF THE BACTERIA THAT HAS BEEN ACQUIRED THE ENVIRONMENT
THAT ARE NOT PARTICULARLY APPROPRIATE. IT OFFERS THE THING THAT THIS
IMPLIES ABOUT THE EARLY EDUCATION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM,
THE ACQUISITION OF PATHOGENS, EDUCATION OF METABOLISM. THERE’S A RATHER INTERESTING
OUTCOME. THIS IS THE POOP COMING OUT OF A
BABY. IF A BREAST FED BABY DOES NOT
HAVE THE RIGHT BACTERIA ALL THIS KEEPS STREAMING OUT. PEDIATRICIANS RECOMMEND MOTHERS
TO ANTICIPATE FROM 4 TO 9 LOSE DIAPER A DAY. IF THEY GET THE BACTERIA WITHIN
48-HOURS IT DISAPPEARS THE BACTERIA NUMBERS GO UP. THEY HAVE ONE DIAPER A DAY. THE PH IS INTERESTING. PH OF THE BABY, PH6 ALL
PATHOGENS CAN GROW AT PH6. IF THE BABY GETS THE BACTERIA
THAT’S THE PH4.5. NO PATHOGENS ARE AT 4.5. THIS IS A SHELF STABLE BABY. WE ARE BEGINNING TO SEE THIS IS
A REALLY GOOD IDEA. IT’S NOT NEW. WE WENT BACK AND LOOKED AT THE
LITERATURE IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY BEFORE THERE WERE
ANTIBIOTICS AND C-SECTIONS AND THERE WAS INTERESTING
INFORMATION. THE FRENCH MICRO BIOLOGIST IN
THE 19TH CENTURY THE ONLY THING HE HAD WAS THE CRUDE MICROSCOPE. THAT’S WHAT THEY DID. IN ESSENCE THEY LOOKED AT THAT
AND THEY WERE ROUND AND THEY WERE DIFFERENT SIZES, THAT’S HOW
THEY DESCRIBED THEM. HE TOOK THIS TOOL SET TO LOOK AT
BACTERIA FROM ALL SORTS OF PLACES AND NOT SURPRISINGLY HE
LOOKED AT THE POOP AND LO AND BEHOLD, OH MY GOSH, IT IS FULL
OF EVERY IMAGINABLE SIZE AND SHAPE. IT IS CLEAR HUMANS ARE FULL OF
BACTERIA. WHAT IS INTERESTING AT ONE POINT
HE LOOKED AT A BREAST FED BABY. HE REMARKED OH MY GOSH THERE’S
ONLY ONE THERE. IT IS A PRETTY UNUSUAL SHAPE. HE CALLED IT THE Y SHAPE. 100 YEARS AGO AND ALL OF THE WAY
BACK THROUGH HUMAN HISTORY WE HAVE THIS UNUSUAL ECOSYSTEM. WE INADVERTENTLY KNOCKED IT OUT. WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? WE ARE NOT ALONE. THE BACTERIA IN US ARE REALLY
IMPORTANT. THERE’S ANOTHER OLIGOSACCHARIDES
IN MILK THAN PROTEIN. IT IS IMPORTANT TO FEED THE
BACTERIA IN THE BABY AS THE BABY. WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO CHANGE
THE WAY WE LOOK AT HEALTH. A WHOLE NEW WAY. WE HAVE TO FEED THE BACTERIA IN
US THAT WOULD BECOME IN ESSENCE OR MINION. SOUNDS LIKE FOOD IS GOING TO GET
UNPLEASANT. WE HAVE TO HAVE BACTERIA OR FOOD
IN BACTERIA OR NOT TOO MUCH. IF YOU LOOK AT THE VALUABLE FOOD
PRODUCT THAT COMES FROM THE CULINARY ART FROM COFFEE,
CHEESE, BREAD, KIM CHI THEY ARE NOT COMMODITIES. THEY ARE A COMMODITY PLUS A
MICRO ORGANISM. THOSE PRODUCTS ARE MORE STABLE,
ANOTHER NOURISHING, MORE VALUABLE AND MORE DELICIOUS. SO THE FUTURE IS ACTUALLY GOING
TO BE MORE NOURISHING, MORE SAFE, MORE STABLE AND MORE
DELICIOUS. IT IS UP TO YOU. IF YOU ARE GOING TO IN ESSENCE
HAVE A BETTER LIFE YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE DISRUPTIVE. THEY ARE CHANGING THE WAY WE
GROW, PROCESS AND DELIVER FOOD. IT IS NOT GOING TO BE THE WAY MY
GENERATION NEEDED. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE NOW TO IMAGINE
A VERY DIFFERENT FUTURE FOR FOOD AND FOR THE OF LIFE. THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE)
ON YOUR MARK, GET SET, GO. YES! TURN IT
THIS WAY SO I CAN SEE IT. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR INVITING
ME WITH THESE FABULOUS CO SPEAKERS. BRUCE THAT WAS THE FIRST TIME I
HAVE HEARD THAT TALK. I AM GOING TO TRY TO SET JUSTIN
UP HERE. I AM A NUTRITION SCIENTIST. QUICK BACKGROUND THAT MIGHT BE
FUN IS IN 1986 I SHOWED UP HERE WITH A LITTLE LONGER HAIR AND A
LITTLE GOATEE AND I SAID HEY, CAN I GET A MASTER’S DEGREE IN
NUTRITION. YOU ARE A PHILOSOPHY MAJOR FROM
UP STATE NEW YORK YOU DIDN’T TAKE ANY SCIENCE. YES I DID 101. HE SAID YOU ARE MISSING TWO
YEARS OF SCIENCE. I TOOK THEM, I CAME BACK THEY
GAVE ME A PH.D. AND I HAVE BEEN AT STANFORD FOR 25 YEARS. ALL I WANTED WAS A VEGETARIAN
RESTAURANT. THAT MAY BE HEADED NOW BECAUSE
ALL OF MY RESEARCH SAYS YOU SHOULD EAT MORE FIBER SO YOU CAN
SUPPORT JUSTIN. MY TALK IS REALLY ALL ABOUT
FIBER. BUT I HAVE BECOME A HUMAN
INTERVENTIONIST IN THE FIELD OF NUTRITION, SO I WILL GIVE YOU A
LITTLE NARRATIVE TO SHOW HOW THAT WORKS FOR ME. I HAVE DONE A NUMBER OF STUDIES
I WILL SPARE YOU SOY, ANTIOXIDANTS THINGS LIKE THAT. ONE I DID WAS A WEIGHT LOSS
STUDY WHERE WE COMPARED LOW FAT, LOW CARB. WE DIDN’T CARE IF LOW FAT AND
LOW CARB WON, THEY DIDN’T. THEY ALWAYS TIE ON AVERAGE. THE INTERESTING THING BRUCE
POINTED OUT IS THE INTER VARIABILITY. IN OUR STUDY 600 PEOPLE OVER A
YEAR WE WERE NOT INTERESTED TO SEE WHICH DIET WAS BEST OVERALL
BUT WHICH WAS BEST FOR WHO. WE WERE EXPECTING AN ENORMOUS
AMOUNT OF VARIABILITY. WE WANTED TO TRY TO BE ABLE TO
EXPLAIN IT SO I HAVE A VERY COMPLICATED STUDY DESIGNED HERE. IN ESSENCE WE HAVE 600 PEOPLE
WHO HAD 16 TO 20 POUNDS TO LOSE GENERALLY HEALTHY, NONDIABETIC. THEY BLED FOR US, POOPED FOR US,
PEED FOR US AND ANSWERED REQUEST HE IS. WE GATHERED AS MUCH DATA AS WE
COULD TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS. THIS HASN’T BEEN PUBLISHED. DON’T TELL ANYBODY SO YOU DON’T
WRECK MY CHANCES TO GET INTO THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. THIS IS WHAT WE CALL A WATER
FALL POT. EACH BAR IS ONE PERSON IN THE
STUDY. DOESN’T MATTER WHICH ONE IS
GOOD. THE TOP ONE IS LOW CARB THE
BOTTOM IS LOW FAT. CAN YOU TELL IT DOESN’T MATTER? IT IS THE DISTRIBUTION OF WEIGHT
CHANGE IN 12 MONTHS LOOKING IDENTICAL. SO WHAT I THINK IS FASCINATING
IN THE PROCESS OF LOSING 6,500 POUNDS COLLECTIVELY, WE SAW AN
80 POUND RANGE OF DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE TO THE SAME ADVICE IN
BOTH SIDES. ISN’T THAT COOL THEY ARE LIKE A
POUND DIFFERENCE ON AVERAGE? WHAT THE HECK? WE GAVE THEM THE SAME DAMN
ADVICE. HOW CAN IT BE WHEN WE GIVE
SOMEONE LOW CARB ADVICE SOMEONE LOSES 60 SOMEONE LOSES 20 AND
THE SAME IN BETWEEN. WE LOOK TO SEE IF THERE WAS A
GENETIC OR METABOLIC IN TERMS OF INSULIN OR BEING PREDISPOSED TO
DIABETES OR THANKS TO JUSTIN A MICROBIOTIC. THE DIFFERENCE IN THESE PEOPLE
THAT CREATED A PREDISPOSITION TO DO BETTER ON ONE DIET OR THE
OTHER. THE FIELD OF NUTRITION IS NOT
LOOKING FOR AVERAGE BUT INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY THAT THEY
ARE TRYING TO ACCOUNT FOR IT. I AM GOING TO GET SO MANY
PUBLICATIONS ON THIS. IT WILL BE SO MISREPRESENTED IN
THE NEWS, I AM GOING TO BE MISQUOTED. IT IS GOING TO MAKE THINGS WORSE
AT ONE LEVEL. IF YOU TRY TO COMMUNICATE THIS
TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC THEY WILL MAKE CLAIMS ABOUT OUR LOW FAT,
LOW CARB STUDY WHICH DON’T TAKE MANY OF THE SUBTLE NUANCES INTO
ACCOUNT. FOR THE FIRST TIME CALLING IT
LOW FAT AND LOW CARB IS WRONG. THERE ISN’T ONE LOW CARB DIET. IT IS MAYBE LOWER THAN WHAT YOU
ARE DOING NOW. PEOPLE HAVE A CRAPPY LOW CARB
DIET OR A GOOD ONE OR A CRAPPY LOW FAT DIET OR A GOOD ONE. EVEN WITHIN THOSE TWO REALMS OF
DIET, THEY ARE VERY DIFFERENT. WE ARE GOING TO GO THROUGH ALL
OF THE PARTS. AT THE END OF THE DAY I AM GOING
TO GET GREAT PUBLICATIONS KEEP MY JOB AT STANFORD AND
CONFESSIONS OF A NUTRITION SCIENTIST, MORE PEOPLE WILL BE
CONFUSED, NOT HELPED. THAT’S MY VISION. I DO THAT TO KEEP MY JOB AND TO
GET PUBLICATIONS. THIS IS MY FAVORITE QUOTE FROM
THE PEOPLE WHO LOST THE MOST WEIGHT. IT WASN’T A LOW CARB OR A LOW
FAT THING. THEY CHANGED THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO FOOD. THEY DIDN’T SNACK THAT MUCH THEY
WERE MINDFUL. PART OF IT WAS THEY WERE
MINDLESS EATING AND PUTTING ON THAT WEIGHT. THAT GETS INTO SOME OTHER THINGS
LIKE THE INSANE ANTI CARB CRAZE WE HAVE GOING ON RIGHT NOW. ALL OF A SUDDEN THEY ARE EVIL. I WILL TOTALLY AGREE WITH THE
EVILNESS. NOT THE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
BUT THE ADDED SUGAR WE ARE DUMPING ON FOOD. I CAN TAKE THE PALEO, LOW CARB
FANATICS, I CAN TAKE THE LOW FAT FANATICS PUT THEM ALL IN A ROOM
AND THEY WILL AGREE. ADDED SUGAR IS BAD. DON’T DO THAT ONE. WHITE FLOWER. OH MY GOSH. AMERICANS EAT SOMETHING LIKE
175,000 POUNDS OF GRAIN PER YEAR AND 90 PERCENT OF IT IS WHEAT
AND ALMOST ALL OF THE WHEAT IS REFINED WHITE FLOUR. WE EAT AN INSANE AMOUNT OF WHITE
DOLLAR. OTHERS WOULD TRASH TALK THE
WHITE FLOUR. I DON’T KNOW HOW MANY GREW UP
WITH THE FOOD PYRAMID BUT I HAVE REPLACED IT WITH MY PLATE. THE PLATE IS MUCH MORE THAN WHAT
YOU ATE OFF THAN A PYRAMID. WHO ATE OFF THE PYRAMID. THIS DOESN’T HAVE ANY FOOD ON IT
HERE’S A RENDITION THAT HAS FOOD. PRETTY MUCH EVERY CATEGORY HAS
CARBS. THE VEGGIES MOSTLY CARBS. THE FRUITS MOSTLY CARBS. THE GRAINS MOSTLY CARBS, THE
DAIRY CARBS. THE PROTEIN INSIDE EVERYBODY
THINKS IT IS MEAT BUT IT’S LEGUMES AND EVERYTHING. WE ARE GOING TO BE MISSING CARBS
AND FIBER. THINK FIBER. IT DOESN’T REALLY COME WITH
OTHER FOODS. IT COMES WITH CARBS CONTAINING
FOOD. I MADE MY OWN CARBOHYDRATE
PYRAMID. THIS IS MINE. IT IS ABSOLUTELY BRILLIANT. AT THE VERY TOP OF THE PYRAMID
ARE THE FOOD YOU WANT TO GET RID OF. JUST THE TOP. JUST THE FLOUR AND THE SUGAR. ALL OF THE OTHER STUFF IS
DELICIOUS, CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE AND FABULOUS FOOD. PLEASE GET OVER THE ANTI CARB
CRAZE. IT IS NUTS. I CAN TALK FOR A DAY. YOU ARE GOING TO GET FIBER FROM
THE FOODS THAT ARE CARBOHYDRATE RICH. DON’T GO CRAZY ON THE ANTI CARB
CRAZE. THE NEXT THING WE HAVE IS THE
WHIPLASH EVERYBODY SHOULD EAT LOW FAT. NO EVERYBODY IS WRONG YOU SHOULD
EAT LOW CARB. TRASH ONE, TRASH THE OTHER. SOMEHOW IN THE WHOLE THING
PROTEIN STUCK OUT AS OKAY. PROTEIN IS THE ONLY THING THAT
POO BEEN CRASHED. IT IS GOOD FOR BRAIN PRIOR AND
SEXUAL DRIVE. WE HAVE THE SAME FOR PROTEIN. THEY THINK OF IT AS MEAT. WE LOOKED AT 150 COUNTRIES AND
HOW MUCH MEAT THEY EAT RELATIVE TO THEIR GDP. ANYWAY GO AND YOU GET MORE
MONEY. THERE’S ONE COUNTRY THAT IS OFF
THE CHART. IT IS US. HOLY CRAP. ARE YOU KIDDING ME? LIKE EVERY OTHER COUNTRY ONCE
THEY GET ENOUGH MONEY THEY STOP EATING SO MUCH MEAT OR STOP
INCREASING. NOT AMERICANS. WE WIN. MORE OF STUFF IS BETTER. THAT IS OBSCENE REALLY. HERE’S ANOTHER WAY TO LOOK AT IT
WITH AN FAO GRAPH. WE KICKED BUTT. WE DECREASED PLANT PROTEIN AND
INCREASED OUR ANIMAL PROTEIN. WHAT DID I JUST SAY. YOU GET IT. RIGHT SIDE. INCREASED ANIMAL, DECREASED
PLANTS. THE PLANT, THE PLANTS HAVE
FIBER. NOT ONLY DO WE EAT WAY TOO MUCH
MEAT, WHAT THE HELL IS THIS? BECAUSE MORE PROTEIN THAN ANY
OTHER COUNTRY IN THE WORLD ISN’T ENOUGH. SO ON TOP OF THAT WE HAVE TO
HAVE A SHAKE IN A BAR AND A BIG CYLINDER OF SOY PROTEIN POWDER
BEFORE WE GO TO THE GYM TO GET RIPPED SO WE GET ENOUGH PROTEIN. AS YOU EAT ALL OF THAT PROTEIN
YOU ARE MOVING STUFF OFF OF YOUR PLATE THAT HAD FIBER. YOU ARE. WE ARE EATING LESS AND LESS
PLANTS AND LESS AND LESS FIBER. WHY? I HAVE NO FRIGGING’ IDEA. SOME OF THE PROTEIN WERE ON THIS
CAMPUS IN MORGAN HALL IN THE PENTHOUSE. SO LONG AGO NO ONE REMEMBERS. THE HUGE TONE THAT IS 600 PAGES
150 PROTEINS. IF YOU LOOK THERE’S AN ESTIMATED
AVERAGE REQUIREMENT AND A SAFETY FACTOR ON TOP OF THAT WHICH IS
THE RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE. FIND YOUR WEIGHT, EXTRAPOLATE A
LITTLE. GO DOWN TO WHAT IS THE
REQUIREMENT AND THERE’S A SAFETY BUFFER IN CASE YOU NEED MORE. I HEARD EVERYBODY IS ABOVE
AVERAGE. YOU PROBABLY DON’T HAVE THE
AVERAGE REQUIREMENT FOR PROTEIN. YOU ARE ABOVE AVERAGE. GO AHEAD. GO HIGHER THAN THAT. HOW MUCH DO AMERICANS EAT? IS THEY EAT ABOUT DOUBLE THE RDA
WHICH HAD THE SAFETY BUFFER ON IT. WHAT ARE THEY THINKING? THEY WERE LISTENING TO MARKETING
AND CARBS ARE GETTING TRASHED. WE HAVE HAD A RECENT SET OF
GUIDELINES REVIEWED. POLITICALLY THIS DIDN’T QUITE
FLY. LET’S NOT GET INTO THE POLITICS
OF THE DIETARY GUIDELINES VERSES THE DIETARY GUIDELINE COMMITTEE
WHO SAID WE HAVE TO STOP EATING SO MUCH MEAT AND WE HAVE TO EAT
MORE PLANTS FOR OUR HEALTH AND FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. GOT DISMISSED IN THE DIETARY
GUIDELINES OF 2015. SEE IF YOU CAN ANSWER THIS
QUESTION. THINK FOR YOURSELF. THIS IS ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WE
HAVE THIS IS GOING ON I AM AFRAID TO BUST APART EVEN
FURTHER LATER. DO PLANTS HAVE PROTEIN? WAIT A SEC. I SHOWED YOU A SLIDE. HOW ABOUT THIS. ARE ALL PLANT FOODS MISSING SOME
OF THE POTENTIAL AMINO ACIDS. THINK ABOUT THE HIGH SCHOOL
CLASS YOU HAVE. HE SOME PLANT FOOD HAS SOME OF
THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS. NINE ARE ESSENTIAL YOU HAVE TO
GET IT FROM YOUR DIET. THE OTHER 11 YOU HAVE TO MAKE. DO ALL PLANT FOODS HAVE 20 AMINO
ACIDS. CAN WE DO A QUICK QUIZ. WHO VOTES FOR NUMBER 1 PLANTS
DON’T HAVE PROTEIN. WHO VOTES FOR NUMBER 2 ALL
PLANTS ARE MISSING SOME AMINO ACIDS. HOW ABOUT 3, SOME PLANTS MISSING
SOME AMINO ACIDS. ALL PLANTS HAVE ALL 20 AMINO
ACIDS. THAT’S THE CORRECT ANSWER. I HAVE A WHOLE SET OF SLIDES IF
YOU ASK ME WHEN WE ARE SITTING IN THE CHAIR I WILL SHOW YOU BUT
I DON’T HAVE TIME TO DO THAT NOW. WE HAVE BACKUP SLIDES. I DON’T KNOW WHERE WE GET THIS
IDEA. THEY ALL HAVE 20 AMINO ACIDS. WILL THE PLANT PROPORTIONS OF
AMINO ACIDS ARE NOT PERFECT IN THE HUMAN BODY IF I SHOW YOU
DATA YOU WILL BE STUNNED HOW CLOSE THEY ARE. THEY ARE ALMOST IDENTICAL. HOW MANY OF YOU KNOW A
VEGETARIAN? HOW MANY SEE THEM FALL OVER FROM
LOW PROTEIN? I AM SICK AND TIRED OF PEOPLE
ASKING WHERE DO YOU GET THE PROTEIN? I HAVE ASKED EVERY PHYSICIAN I
KNOW AND NONE OF THEM HAVE EVER TREATED A VEGAN FOR PROTEIN
DEFICIENCY. NEVER. UNLESS THERE’S SOMETHING ELSE
GOING ON. I DON’T KNOW WHERE THE SILVER
BACK GORILLA OR THE BISON OR THE COW OR THE ELEPHANT OR THE
DINOSAUR OR MR. UNIVERSE
VEGETARIAN. YOU REALLY CAN. YOU CAN GET ALL OF THE PROTEIN
YOU KNEAD FROM THE PLANTS AND THE PLANTS HAVE FIBER. THE MEAT HAS NO FIBER. I HAVE BEEN ON A QUEST TO GET
PEOPLE OVER SOME OF THESE ISSUES DIFFERENTLY. AND WHEN WE TELL THEM ABOUT
GRAMS OF FIBER AND ANTIOXIDANTS THEIR EYES ROLL IN THE BACK OF
THEIR HEADS AND THEY ROLL OVER. WE KIND OF DID SOME OF THE PARTS
OF THIS CLASS IN OUR OWN CLASS CALLED FOOD SOCIETY WHERE THEY
READ ABOUT FOOD CULTURE ISSUES. THEY WATCH DOCUMENTARIES AND
THEY DIDN’T HAVE QUIZZES OR MID TERMS OR EXAMS THEY HAD TO RIGHT
AN OP-ED AND THEY DID YOUTUBE AND BROAD AND ALL OF THE BASIC
TOP CLASSES. GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE
CHANGE AND HUMAN LABOR ABUSES IN AGRICULTURAL FIELDS AND FAST
FOOD WORKERS. WE PUBLISH A STUDY ON THIS. WE ASKED STUDENTS BEFORE AND
AFTERWARDS WHAT THEY ATE. WE DID FOUR CLASSES IN HUMAN
BIOLOGY. WE HAVE DATA PUBLISHED IN A
STUDY THAT SAID OUR STUDENTS CHANGE THEIR DIETS MORE THAN
OTHERS. WE EVEN HAVE A GRAPH. WE HAVE DOMAINS OF FOOD. THERE’S THE P VALUE. STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT. LET’S STOP FOR A MINUTE. THIS IS A HORRIBLE STUDY. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS STUDY. THEY SELF SELECTED IN THE CLASS. THEY HAD THEIR NAMES ON THE PRE
AND POST THING. IF THEY WANTED A GOOD GRADE THEY
SAID THEY WOULD CHANGE. WE ONLY DID IF FOR 10 WEEKS. I DON’T KNOW IF IT LASTED. WHY DID THEY PUBLISH IT? BECAUSE THEY PUBLISHED IT
BECAUSE THE STUFF WE DO DOESN’T WORK. THE STUFF WE DO FOR BEHAVIOR
CHANGES IS RIDICULOUSLY INEFFECTIVE. IT IS MIND NUMBINGLY BORING
ABOUT GRAMS OF FIBER AND MILLIGRAMS OF ANTIOXIDANTS. IF YOU THINK ABOUT THIS
RIDICULOUS DILEMMA OF UNPRECEDENTED CHOICES I USED TO
GIVE HOUR LONG LECTURES AND I HAD A MID LIFE CRISIS. NOW I TALK MORE ABOUT THE OTHER
SIDE OF FOOD. WHAT HAPPENS IN OUR CLASSES, WE
ARE TEACHING IT RIGHT NOW OP-EDS ARE DUE TOMORROW FOR THIS YEAR’S
CLASS. WHAT WE FIND IS THERE’S A
DIFFERENT HOOK FOR EACH STUDENT. THERE ISN’T THE SAME ONE. SOME ARE REALLY INTO THE ANIMAL
RIGHTS SOME ARE NOT. THEY GO THERE THEY TREATED THEIR
ANIMALS OKAY. SOME ARE INTO CLIMATE CHANGE
THEY NEVER UNDERSTOOD BEFORE NOW THEY ARE EATING LESS MEET BETTER
MEAT. THEY ARE ALL BEING MORE MINDFUL
AND AS THEY DO THE THING THAT CRACKS ME UP IS THEY ARE
CHANGING THEIR BEHAVIORS IN ALL OF THE WAYS I WANTED THEM TO. WHEN I WENT TO TRIAL ABOUT THE
MILLIGRAMS OF ANTIOXIDANTS AND GRAMS OF FIBER I AM INTERESTED
IN THEM EATING MORE FIBER SO WE CAN PROMOTE THE MICROBIOME I AM
SETTING JUSTIN UP FOR. ONE OF MY CHALLENGES IS THE IDEA
OF MOVING HUMAN BEHAVIOR WHEN WE HAVE ALL OF THESE PAT PERSON
TERNS ESTABLISHED. WE HAVE BEEN HAVING FUN LINKING
SOCIETAL AND EXTERNAL COSTS OF FOOD, THE CHOICES AND WE ARE
HAVING A BLAST. EVERY YEAR I TEACH THE CLASS I
NOTICE SCIENTIFIC PAPER ISN’T ALL THAT RIGOROUS. I WATCH STUDENTS WRESTLING WITH
FOOD CHOICES. THEY ARE ENGAGED. I LOVE HOW THIS TOPIC ENGAGES
THEM. WE ARE GOING TO END ON TWO QUICK
NOTES HERE. AS I MOVE FORWARD, I AM
REALIZING IT HAS TO BE DELICIOUS. IT HAS TO BE DELICIOUS. I HUG A CHEF WHENEVER I CAN NOW
AND I HAVE TAKEN ON A ROLE AS A SCIENTIFIC ADVISOR OF THE CIA. DOES THAT MAKE SENSE? YOU GOT THAT. I CONSIDER THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE
INSTITUTE AND NATIONAL RESTAURANT ASSOCIATION, BUT I
DECIDED THOSE WEREN’T APPROPRIATE SO I STUCK WITH THE
CIA INSTEAD OF THE OTHER ONE. NOW I GET TO HANG OUT WITH CHEFS
ALL OF THE TIME AND I LOVE THIS GUY THE HEAD OF STRATEGIC
INITIATIVE FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY. HE WANTS TO RAISE THE
UNAPOLOGETIC DELICIOUSNESS OF FOOD. AS A NUTRITION SCIENTIST I KNOW
WHERE THIS IS COMING FROM. FOR 20-YEARS I SAID I HAVE A LOT
OF FIBER IN THIS AND IT DOESN’T TASTE AS GOOD AS THE THING YOU
WANTED TO EAT BUT IT IS SO GOOD FOR YOU. DO YOU KNOW HOW APOLOGETIC THAT
IS? NO HE WANTS TO BLOW THIS OUT OF
THE WATER. STOP APOLOGIZING. ELEVATE THE UNAPOLOGETIC
DELICIOUSNESS OF FOOD. THE GROUP IS CALLED THE MENUS
HAVE CHANGED. WE HAVE FOUR ANNUAL MEETINGS,
THE FIFTH ONE IS COMING UP. THE PRINCIPLES ARE CHANGED. IT IS VERY CHEF DRIVEN. ONE OF THE THINGS THEY HAVE
LATCHED ON TO THE MOST IS A PROTEIN FLIP. PROTEIN FLIP MEANS STOP HAVING
BEEF AT THE MIDDLE OF THE PLACE. USE BEEF AS A CONDIMENT OR HAVE
SMALLER PORTIONS OF BEEF AND GLOBAL FUSION OF HERBS AND
SPICES AND GRAINS AND VEGETABLES SO YOU ARE NOT DICHOTOMIZING THE
VEGETARIANS AND CARNIVORES. IT IS BRINGING THEM TOGETHER IN
GLOBAL FUSION OF CUISINES FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. THEY TASTE GREAT AND THEY HAVE
LESS MEAT AND MORE PLANTS. THAT’S WHAT THE PROTEIN FLIP IS
ALL ABOUT. OH, I DON’T GET ENOUGH PROTEIN. I WILL CONVINCE YOU AND SHOW YOU
MIAMI MEAN NO ACID SLIDES. THE MENUS OF CHANGE RESEARCH
COLLABORATORS AND BERKELEY IS ONE OF THE 25 MEMBERS 25
UNIVERSITIES SIGNED UP TO USE THAT YOU ARE DINING HALLS AS
LIVING LABORATORIES AND HAVE STUDENTS STUDY THEMSELVES AROUND
THESE KINDS OF CHOICE ISSUES, BEHAVIOR ISSUES, CHOICE
ARCHITECTURE AND SO WE ARE KICKING ONE OFF THIS WEEK WE ARE
DOING A MUSHROOM BEEF BLEND. 50/40, 40/50 OR 40/60 MUSHROOM
BEEF. IT WINS BUT WE DON’T KNOW WHAT
THE RATIO IS. WE ARE GOING TO FURTHER USE THE
LABS IN THE DINING HALLS AS A WAY TO EXPERIMENT WITH WHICH ONE
OF THOSE RATIOS IS BETTER. WE ARE HAVING A LOT OF FUN. AT THE END OF THE DAY TO TIE
INTO TODAY’S TALK A LOT OF WHAT I DO IS AROUND US. I DO FANCY NIH STUDIES AND I
HAVE POOP AND BLOOD AND STATISTICS. AT THE END OF THE DAY ALL OF MY
STUFF GETS BLOWN AWAY BECAUSE PEOPLE SAY I AM PALEO OR I AM
GLUTEN FREE OR I AM BUFF AND RIPPED AND I AM GOING TO GET ALL
OF THIS PROTEIN IN THE BEEF. ALL OF THIS SCIENCE I DO IS FOR
NAUGHT? I AM GOING TO GET RID OF THE
ANTI CARB PRAISE GETTING RID OF THE PROTEIN OBSESSION AND IN THE
PROCESS PEOPLE WILL EAT A LOT MORE FIBER. WE HAVE 35, 40 GRAMS OF FIBER A
DAY. ACCORDING TO THE SURVEY
AMERICANS GET HALF AS MUCH FIBER AS THEY SHOULD. INSTEAD OFFING GOING FOR MORE
THEY GO FOR ONE MORE PROTEIN BAR AND ONE MORE CHICKEN BREAST. YOU HAVE TO STOP THAT AND
REVERSE IT TO WHERE WE GET CLOSER TO THE HADZA WHERE THEY
GET 150 GRAMS OF FIBER A DAY. IT’S POSSIBLE. I WOULD LIKE TO LEAVE THIS IN
JUSTIN’S HANDS TO TAKE THIS TO THE NEXT STEP. I THINK IT IS ALL ABOUT FIBER. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION. MAN: IF YOU DIDN’T GET ENOUGH
(INDISCERNIBLE) MAN: IT IS WONDERFUL TO BE HERE. I AM HERE TO TELL YOU I NEED TO
EAT MORE PROTEIN TO FEED — NO, JUST KIDDING. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING WE HAVE
TO HAVE ENOUGH TIME TO CHAT. I WANT TO MAKE SURE I DON’T
SPEAK TOO LONG. FIRST OF ALL, THANK YOU FOR THIS
INVITATION. I HAVE KNOWN ABOUT THIS COURSE
FOR YEARS AND TO BE A PART OF THIS INCREDIBLE LINE UP OF
SPEAKERS YOU HAVE IN THIS CLASS IS REALLY PHENOMENAL. THANK YOU. THAT INCLUDES OUR SPEAKERS
TONIGHT. IT IS REALLY AN HONOR TO BE
HERE. IT IS GREAT TO BE IN FRONT OF
THIS AUDIENCE LIKE THIS, HUNDREDS OF TRILLIONS OF YOU IF
WE DON’T JUST COUNT THE HUMANS. AND THE DIVERSITY IS PHENOMENAL. THOUSANDS OF SPECIES OUT THERE I
SEE. THIS IS GREAT. I AM TALKING ABOUT THE MICROBES
IN THE ROOM MOSTLY. MOST OF THESE MICROBES FROM IN
THE GUT. HE HARVESTED THIS INCREDIBLE
DIVERSE COMMUNITY THAT IS IMPACTING OUR HEALTH IN MANY
DIFFERENT WAYS. IT IS PHENOMENAL. THESE MICROBES CAN DRIVE YOU TO
DISEASE IF YOU DON’T TAKE CARE OF THEM. IT TURNS OUT WHAT NOURISHES THEM
IS WHAT YOU EAT. WHAT WE ARE LEARNING IS WHAT WE
EAT IN THE MODERNIZED WORLD ISN’T THAT GREAT FOR THE GUT
MICROBIOME. TODAY WE ARE GOING TO TELL YOU
ABOUT THERE’S AN INCREDIBLY COMPLEX SYSTEM THE MICROBIOME IN
HUMANS IT IS DIFFERENT IN ALL OF US. IT WILL BE A LONG TIME BEFORE WE
UNDERSTAND HOW TO TARGET THE MICROBIOME TO ATTACK IT IN A
MEDICAL CLINICAL SENSE. WE ARE LEARNING BASIC PRINCIPLES
I THINK EVERYBODY SHOULD UNDERSTAND. WE CAN START DOING THINGS IN OUR
EVERY DAY LIFE TO HELP THE MICROBIOME TO FEED IT AND MAKE
THE BEST OF THIS COMMUNITY THAT WE CAN. THAT’S WHAT I AM HOPING TO GET
ACROSS. I WANT TO — WE WILL SEND THE
STORY OUT. THE LOCAL HERO HAD A NEW YORK
TIMES OP ED THIS PAST WEEK IN HONOR OF VALENTINE’S DAY. IT IS A LOVE STORY. MICROBES CAN EFFECT YOUR HEALTH
IN MANY GREAT WAYS. BOTTOM LINE THEY CAN ALSO MAKE
US (INDISCERNIBLE). YOU WILL SEE THE LITTLE THINGS
THROUGHOUT THIS. THIS IS AN IMAGE TAKEN BY A
FORMER GRADUATE STUDENT IN MY LAB KRISTEN EARL. SHE MADE HER PH.D. DISSERTATION
ABOUT TAKING IMAGES AND LEARNING ABOUT THINGS. IN THIS IMAGE WHAT WE DO IS WE
TAKE A COLON OUT OF A MOUSE. WE CROSS-SECTION IT, PAINT IT
WITH FLUORESCENT PROBES AND LOOK AT IT UNDER A MICROSCOPE. THAT’S WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING AT
HERE. THE BOTTOM RIGHT IS HOST TISSUE. EVERY BLUE CIRCLE IS A NUCLEUS
OF A SOLE LON. IN THE TOP LEFT EVERY ONE OF
THOSE COLORED RODS THERE IS A BACTERIAL CELL. THIS IS THE GUT MICROBIOME. YOU CAN SEE HOW CLOSE IT IS TO
OUR TISSUE THIS INCREDIBLE INTERFACE. THESE MICROBES ARE SECRETING
CHEMICALS. IT IS LIKE WE HAVE AN
UNREGULATED PHARMACIST IN OUR GUT DISPENSING DRUGS. WE ARE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT
THESE ARE. THERE IS THIS GREEN STRIP
RUNNING THROUGH THE MIDDLE. ANYBODY WANT TO MAKE A GUESS
WHAT THIS IS? MUCOUS, YEAH, WONDERFUL. THIS IS THE BARRIER WE SECRETE
TO KEEP THE MICROBES AT A SAFE DISTANCE. THIS MUCOUS LAYER IS IMPORTANT
TO KEEPING THE MICROBES AS BENEFICIAL AS THEY ARE SEPARATED
FROM OUR HUMAN TISSUE. AN ASTOUNDING STAT BY CELL
NUMBER WE ARE MORE MICROBIAL THAN HUMAN. WE HAVE MORE MICROBIAL CELLS. IF YOU TAKE THE COLLECTIVE GNOME
OF THE MICROBES, IT HAS MORE THAN 100 TIMES THAN OUR GENES. METABOLIC SIGNALS MANY OF WHICH
WE DON’T UNDERSTAND ARE ENCODED IN OUR MICROBIOMES. AND THE FIELD IS RAPIDLY MOVING
FROM JUST UNDERSTANDING WHO IS THERE CENSUS TAKING, MAPPING
WHAT MICROBES ARE IN WHAT BODY SITE TO UNDERSTANDING HOW THESE
MICROBES INTEGRATE INTO OUR BIOLOGY WHAT FUNCTIONS ARE THEY
CARRYING OUT. IT TURNS OUT ONE OF THE MAJOR
FUNCTIONS AND ONE OF THE MAJOR PROFESSIONS OF GUT MICROBES IS
TO DEGRADE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES FROM OUR FOOD. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES IN DIETARY
FIBER. MOST OF THE MICROBIOME LIVES IN
THE DISTAL GUT, IN THE COLON. THE FIBER YOU EAT MAKES IT DOWN
THERE, FEEDS THIS COMMUNITY OF MICROBES FERMENTED AND PRODUCES
ALL SORTS OF CHEMICALS INCLUDING THE SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS THE
FERMENTATION END PRODUCT. HERE IS OUR FIRST CANDY HEART
FOR VALENTINE’S DAY. I AM ONLY SLIGHTLY GASSY. WE MAY AS WELL ADDRESS THIS UP
FRONT. IT IS TRUE WHEN MICROBES ARE
GOING THEY MAKE MORE GAS. THE ONLY CURE FOR BEANS IS A
STEADY DIET OF BEAMS. WE ENGINEER IN A RAMP PERIOD FOR
PEOPLE CHANGING THEIR DIET DRASTICALLY AND INCORPORATING
MORE FIBER. THERE’S A LOT OF ANTIDOTAL
EVIDENCE FROM DOCTORS THAT A SLOW RAMP WILL DECREASE THE
SYMPTOMS. OKAY, SO ANOTHER IMAGE, WE
MICROBIOME, THE EPITHELIUM, THE TISSUE IS ON THE BOTTOM SECRETED
UPWARDS. THE MICROBES ARE THE READ DOTS
UP THERE. THE BRIGHT RED MATERIAL IS PLANT
CELL WALL MATERIALS. THIS IS AN INDICATOR OF DIETARY
FIBER FLOWING THROUGH THE SYSTEM. I BECAME INFATUATED DURING MY
POST DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP. I DID AN EXPERIMENT TO
UNDERSTAND WHAT MICROBES ARE DOING. IT WAS AT THE BEGINNING BEFORE
IT TOOK OFF. I FOUND THERE WAS LARGELY
DEGRADING DIETARY FIBER. WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF I REMOVED
DIETARY FIBER. I PERFORMED AN EXPERIMENT WHERE
I KEPT ONE GROUP OF MICE ON A HIGH FIBER DIET AND I PERFORMED,
I PUT ANOTHER GROUP OF MICE ON THIS OTHER TYPE OF DIET THAT WE
CALL THE HALLOWEEN EXPERIMENT. THIS IS WHAT HAPPENS TO ALL OF
YOUR MICROBIOMES AT THE END OF OCTOBER IF YOU ARE EATING CANDY. WHAT WE FOUND IS THE MICROBES
AREN’T LOST FROM THE SYSTEM, THEY ACTUALLY CHANGE WHAT THEY
ARE DOING. THEY TURN OFF EVERYTHING FROM
DEGRADING THE PLANT OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND THEY START
MAKING MUCOUS. IT IS MADE OF CARBOHYDRATES. IT IS A BACKUP FOOD SOURCE FOR
THE MICROBES. IF YOU ARE NO THE EATING DIETARY
FIBER THE MICROBES START EATING YOU. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE MUCOUS
LAYER? WE COLLABORATED WITH CASEY WONG
BIO ENGINEERING IN STANFORD. HE CREATED THIS WONDERFUL
SOFTWARE PROGRAM THAT SHOWS WHERE THE MICROBES ARE IN THE
GUT IN A QUANTITATIVE WAY. WE SHOWED IF YOU FEED MICE A
FIBER DEFICIENT DIET THE MICROBES THIN IT, GET CLOSER TO
THE TISSUE AND THEY START TO INCITE INFLAMMATION. THIS WAS OVER JUST ABOUT A MONTH
PERIOD WE SAW THIS. IMAGINE WHAT HAPPENS DECADE UPON
DECADE OF EATING A LOW FIBER DIET WHAT’S HAPPENING TO YOUR
GUT. AS I AM DOING ALL OF THIS
RESEARCH OVER THE PAST ALMOST 15 YEARS, IT STARTS TO SINK IN HOW
PROFOUND THIS IS. HOW IT CAN AFFECT YOUR BIOLOGY. I LOOK AT MY WIFE SHE IS A
SCIENTIST. WE RUN THIS LAB TOGETHER. WE NOTICED WE STARTED LIVING OUR
LIVES VERY DIFFERENTLY. WE STARTED RAISING OUR KIDS
DIFFERENTLY, EATING DIFFERENTLY. WE NOTICED THAT — SO THIS IS A
SCENE THAT WE CREATED TO REALLY IMPRESS UPON HIM HOW WE EAT. THERE’S MANURE ON THE TABLE,
THERE’S A LOT OF VEGETABLES. WE NOTICED THAT NONE OF MY
FRIENDS AS WE WERE CHANGING OUR LIFESTYLE, EVEN SCIENTISTS, WERE
NOT DOING THE SAME THINGS WE WERE DOING UNTIL WE GO TO A
MICROBIOME MEETING A CONFERENCE WHERE EVERYBODY SAID IT WAS A
MICROBIOME AND EVERYBODY WAS DOING THE SAME THING. THIS IS JUST US HAVING ACCESS TO
INFORMATION MOST PEOPLE DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO. MY WIFE AND I DECIDED TO WRITE
THIS BOOK, “THE GOOD GUT” TO TALK CANDIDLY ABOUT HOW IT
IMPACTED OUR LIFESTYLE. SO NOT ONLY CAN THE MICROBES
EFFECT DIGESTION GUT HEALTH, WHAT HAS BECOME CLEAR IS THE
MICROBIOME CAN AFFECT EVERYBODY AND THEIR BODY IN SOME WAY. IT CAN EFFECT THE IMMUNE EFFECTS
ON YOUR LUNGS HOW FAST YOU FIGHT OFF AN INFECTION AND AUTOIMMUNE
CAN BE IMPACTED BY WHAT’S GOING ON IN YOUR GUT. METABOLISM. HOW YOU STORE CALORIES CAN BE
AFFECTED BY YOUR GUT BIOME. NERVE DEGENERATIVE DISEASES CAN
BE IMPACTED BY YOUR GUT BIO — MICROBIOME. THE WAY A LOT OF US IN THE
BIOMEDICAL COMMUNITY ARE THINKING ABOUT THIS IS IT WILL
BE A GREAT LEVERAGE FOR MEDICINE. THE IDEA THAT WE DON’T TREAT
PEOPLE AS A POPULATION WE TREAT PEOPLE AS INDIVIDUALS. WE UNDERSTAND IT IS THEIR
BIOLOGY AND WE TREAT THEM APPROPRIATELY. BECAUSE IT IS HIGHLY
INDIVIDUALIZED BECAUSE IT IS MALLEABLE WE CAN CHANGE IT. BECAUSE IT IS WIRED INTO SO MUCH
OF OUR BIOLOGY WE CAN USE IT AS A WONDERFUL LEVER. IT IS INCREDIBLY COMPLEX. THE HORIZON FOR THAT IS OFF. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN WE MANIPULATE
MICROBIOME. THERE’S TOOLS AND KNOWLEDGE BASE
FOR DOING THIS. THIS CRAZY IDEA OF ENGINEERING
MICROBES, CREATING MICROBES THAT CAN SEE WHAT’S GOING ON IN THE
GUT AND MAKE DECISIONS IN THERE. RESPOND TO INFLAMMATION WITH AN
ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUG. WHAT WE ARE SEEING IS DIET IS
THE MAJOR LEVER WE HAVE IN HAND RIGHT NOW TO DO SOMETHING TO
IMPACT THIS COMMUNITY. THIS IS JUST A THUMB NAIL SKETCH
OF METABOLISM IN THE GUT. WE KNOW HAD DIETARY FIBER AND
WHAT WE LIKE TO CALL MICROBIOME ACCESSIBLE CARBOHYDRATES. A LOT OF YOU GOT THE ANSWER
RIGHT WITH THE QUIZ. THESE ARE PRIMARY FUEL. THEY TURN THEM INTO INTEGRATION
END PRODUCT. THERE ARE OTHER MICROBES THAT
DON’T EAT THE MICROBES, BUT THEY GET FUELED BY THE FERMENTATION
END PRODUCT. THIS IS AN INCREDIBLY CONNECTED
BOUDOIR, BUT THE MAJOR GATEWAY OF CHANGING WHAT IS HAPPENING IN
THIS COMMUNITY IS WHAT YOU EAT IN YOUR DIET. YES, THIS IS ALL CONNECTED. IT IS CONNECTED THROUGH WHAT YOU
ARE EATING. OKAY, SO TWO VERY DIFFERENT
METABOLIC SCENARIOS. I ALREADY DESCRIBE THE ONE WHERE
WE ARE EATING A HIGH FIBER DIET. THE CARBOHYDRATES MAKE THEIR WAY
TO THE GUT YOU WILL HAVE SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN YOUR
BLOODSTREAM. THAT CAN CRAP WHAT HAPPENS IN
THE WESTERN WORLD WHERE WE ARE EATING A LOT OF STARCH, SUGAR
AND FAT WITH THE SMALL INTESTINES AND LEAVING THE —
THE AREA WE ARE INVOLVED IN CALORIES WERE SCARCE. LET’S TALK ABOUT THE MICROBIOME
IN THE DIET. HOW
HAS EVERYTHING — TALKING ABOUT THE PLANET, IN 200 YEARS
OUR PLANET HAS CHANGED RELATIVELY DRASTICALLY. FOR 190,000 YEARS WE WERE MOSTLY
FORGING EATING HUGE AMOUNTS OF DIETARY FIBER THEN WE STARTED
FARM CAN EATING LESS FIBER AND NOW WE EAT THE HIGHLY PROCESSED
FOODS. GOING FROM 150 GRAMS OF FIBER A
DAY TO 50. 10 FOLD DECREASE IN NUTRIENTS
THAT IS FEEDING THE BIOLOGY. WHAT WILL DOES THAT PEEN FOR
YOUR — MEAN FOR YOUR HEALTH. WOULDN’T IT BE NICE TO GO BACK
IN TIME TO SEE WHAT THE MICROBIOME LOOKED LIKE AND ASK
WHAT IS A PALEO MICROBIOTA, WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? WE CAN’T DO THAT. WE CAN GO TO TRADITIONAL
POPULATIONS OF HUMANS THAT LIVE, HUNTER GATHER LIFESTYLES AND ASK
WHAT DOES THEIR MICROBIOTA LOOK LIKE? PEOPLE HAVE DONE THAT. THIS IS ONE STUDY PUBLISHED BY
JEFF JORDAN’S GROUP. IF YOU SHOW IT ON THE BOTTOM
THAT SHOWS THE SPECIES IN THE GUT MICROBIOTA. IT APPEARS WE HAVE LOST SPECIES
OVER THE COURSE OF OUR MODERNIZATION. SEND A VALENTINE TO YOUR GUT
MICROBE. AS CHRISTOPHER MENTIONED WE HAVE
BEEN STUDYING THE HADZA IN TANZANIA. THEY HAVE AGREED TO PARTICIPATE
IN OUR RESEARCH. THERE ARE ONLY 200 OF THEM LEFT. THIS IS THEM SITTING AROUND THE
FIRE COOKING ONE OF THEIR INCREDIBLY FIBEROUS MATERIALS. IT FLUCTUATES OVER SEASONS. INCREDIBLE DATA. I HAVE A WONDERFUL GRAD STUDENT
WHO FIGURED OUT HOW TO PUT THE DATA COLLECTED FROM THE
TRADITIONAL POPULATIONS TO DATE, PUT THEM ALL ON ONE CHART. THAT’S SHOWN HERE. IT IS A LITTLE HARD TO SEE. THESE ARE ALL OF THE DIFFERENT
POPULATIONS ON THE LEFT AND THEN HOW THAT POPULATION’S
MICROBIOTAS — HUNDREDS OF INDIVIDUALS. THEY WERE CAPTURED ON THIS ONE
GRAPH. YOU CAN SEE IT IMMEDIATELY. THERE’S THIS GROUP OVER HERE AND
THIS GROUP OVER HERE. THESE ARE ALL OF THE
INDUSTRIALIZED POPULATIONS AND THESE ARE ALL OF THE TRADITIONAL
POPULATIONS. WHETHER YOU GO TO PAPUA NEW
GUINEA, AFRICA OR SOUTH AMERICA, IF YOU LIVE A TRADITIONAL
LIFESTYLE YOUR GUT MICROBIOME LOOKS SIMILAR TO THE CLOSEST
WESTERN POPULATION. THIS STRONGLY SUGGESTS THERE IS
THIS EVOLUTIONARY STATE THAT WE EXISTED IN FOR MOST OF OUR
EVOLUTION THAT WE DEPARTED FROM RELATIVELY RECENTLY. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR OUR
BIOLOGY? GREAT PAINTING. THIS CAPTURES THE IDEA THAT WE
HAVE THE TWO COMPONENTS OF OUR BIOLOGY. WE HAVE THIS HUMAN BIOLOGY THAT
EVOLVES RELATIVELY SLOWLY AND A MICROBIAL BIOLOGY THAT EVOLVES
RELATIVELY RAPIDLY. THESE TWO NEED TO WORK TOGETHER. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU HAVE
REALLY RAPID DIETARY CHANGE THAT CAN CHANGE YOUR MICROBIOME BUT
YOUR HUMAN G NOME DOESN’T CHANGE. YOU HAVE THE TWO COMPONENTS OF
YOUR BIOLOGY. WE THINK THERE’S BEEN THIS GREAT
REDUCTION IN DIVERSITY OVER THE COURSE OF OUR EVOLUTION. WHAT DOES THAT MEAN FOR OUR
HEALTH? WE WANTED TO TEST THIS
EXPERIMENTALLY. WE SET UP THE EXPERIMENT IN MICE
BECAUSE IT IS HARD TO HUMANS OVER THE COURSE OF GENERATIONS. WE GAVE MICE A HUMAN MICROBIOTA
AND SPLIT THEM INTO A LOW FIBER AND HIGH FIBER GROUP WITH THE
EXPECTATIONS THEY WOULD HAVE A MICROBIOTA CRASH. WE BROUGHT BACK A HIGH FIBER
DIET WITH DIVERSITY COME BACK. THIS IS ASKING THE QUESTION IS
IT TOO LATE? CAN WE EAT A HIGH FIBER DIET. MORE CAME BACK. MAYBE IT IS THE FACT THAT WE
HAVE DONE THIS OVER A SINGLE GENERATION. WE REPEATED IT OVER MULTIPLE
GENERATIONS. WE PUT THE MICE ON LOW DIET AND
ASKED WHAT HAPPENED TO THE MICROBIOTA. THESE ARE THE HIGH FIBER FED
MICE, FOUR GENERATIONS, GENERATIONS 1, 2, 3 AND 4 EACH
ROW HERE REPRESENTS A DIFFERENT MOUTH. EACH COLUMN REPRESENTS A
DIFFERENT MICROBIAL SPECIES MOST LIKELY TO GO EX STRENGTH. THESE PIECES ARE ROCK SOLID OVER
THE FOUR GENERATIONS THEY GET PASSED FROM MOTHER TO CHILD
AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN. THESE GUYS OVER HERE GO EXTINCT. EVEN ON A HIGH FIBER DIET
THERE’S A LOT OF MICROBES. TOTAL DEFAMATION OF THIS
COMMUNITY. IF YOUR MICROBE SAYS THEY ARE
YOURS, IT MIGHT NOT BE TRUE. HERE’S WHERE WE HAVE. WE HAVE THE DISTINCTIONS IN OUR
GUT MICROBIOTA. IS DIET ENOUGH TO BRING BACK OUR
MICROBES? DO WE NEED TO REINTRODUCE THIGHS
MICROBES. HOW IMPORTANT IS THIS FOR HUMAN
HEALTH. THEY ARE BIG QUESTIONS WE DON’T
HAVE ANSWERS TO NOW. WE STARTED THE CENTER FOR
MICROBIOME STUDIES, THIS ALLOWS US A PLATFORM TO ASK THE
QUESTIONS ACTUALLY IN HUMANS. THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF EATING
HIGH FIBER DIET DOCUMENTED IN HIGH RESOLUTION. THESE ARE STUDIES WE ARE DOING
WITH CHRISTOPHER’S GROUP BUT IT IS GOING TO UNROLL INTO DECADES
OF STUDIES THAT ESTABLISH THE BEST WAY TO NURTURE A HEALTHY
MICROBIOME. THIS IS SOMETHING WE ONLY
UNDERSTAND AT A VERY CRUDE LEVEL RIGHT NOW. I WANTED TO LEAVE YOU WITH A
FOOD PREFERENCE. WE ARE REQUIRED FOR THE DEPUTY. THAT SUPPLIES ALL OF THEIR
FATHER. HONEY AND MEAT WILL THE OTHER
TWO. IF YOU ASKED THEM WHAT THEY
COULD EAT ALL OF THE TIME IF THEY COULD, YOU PUT THEM IN A
RESTAURANT OR SUPERMARKET THEY WOULD MAKE THE SAM BAD DECISIONS
THAT WE MAKE. THE QUESTION IS, HOW IN A FREE
AND AFFLUENT SOCIETY DO WE GET PEOPLE TO EAT A BETTER DIET? WE CAN DO ALL OF THE STUDIES WE
WANT TO DO, FIND OUT EXACTLY THE RIGHT DIET THAT CAN NURTURE A
HEALTHY MICROBIOTA. WE KNOW WHAT THAT IS. THEY WOULD BE EATING PLANTS. EDUCATION, POLICY, FOOD
TECHNOLOGY. SHALL WE MAKE A FRENCH FRY THAT
FEEDS THE MICRO BIOTA. IS THIS A GOOD IDEA? MAYBE ALL OF THE ABOVE. I DON’T HAVE THE ANSWER. FINALLY I WANT TO THANK MY
GROUP, BECAUSE THEY HAVE CONTRIBUTED ALL OF THE DATA AND
IDEAS AND THANK THE FUNDING SOURCES AND THANKS TO ALL OF YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION. MAN: JUSTIN AND CHRISTOPHER AND
BRUCE ARE ALL HERE THEY ARE KIND ENOUGH TO SPEND THE EVENING WITH
YOU, BUT THEY ARE ALSO ON A RECRUITING TOUR OR GRADUATE
STUDENTS GOING INTO THIS FIELD. THEY ARE THE FACES TO STUDY. ONE WORD I DIDN’T HEAR YOU
MENTION THAT IS REALLY IN THE NEWS RIGHT NOW PARTICULARLY WITH
THE USDA, A LOT OF DATA AROUND ANIMAL WELFARE BEING TAKEN OFF
OF FEDERAL WEB SITES, I DIDN’T HEAR THE WORD ANTIBIOTIC. MAN: OH, YEAH. MAN: MAYBE YOU COULD TALK A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT THAT. MAN: IT IS A HUGE TOPIC IN OUR
CLASS. PHYSICIANS ARE CONCERNED THAT 80
PERCENT OF ANTIBIOTICS IN THE U.S. ARE IN LIVESTOCK. MRSA, THE MULTIPLE RESISTANT
STAPH AUREUS. THERE HAS BEEN A VOLUNTARY
SYSTEM TO STOP USING THEM. IT IS ALL QUITE CONTROVERSIAL. BUT THE SAD THING IS, IT AROSE
OUT OF A NECESSITY WHEN WE DID FACTORY FARMING. FACTORY FARMING AROSE OUT OF
VOLUME ISSUES. WE HAVE A HUGE DEMAND. CAN’T MEET IT WITH GRASS FED SO
DO IT WITH FACTORY FARMING. WHEN THEY ARE IN CLOSE CONTACT
WITH ONE ANOTHER THEY ARE GETTING SICK MAKING IT
ECONOMICALLY VIABLE THEY DON’T JUST TREAT THE SICK ANIMALS THEY
DO IT PREVENTATIVELY. THEY PUT THE ANTIBIOTICS IN
THEIR FEED. ONCE THEY PUT IT IN THE FEED
THEY CAN GROW FASTER. THEY CAN GROW TO SLAUGHTER AGE
AND WEIGHT QUICKER IN THESE FACTORY FARMS. IT IS A COMPLEX SITUATION. IT IS NOT JUST ABOUT HEALTH FOR
THE ANIMALS OR SOCIAL ACCESS. IT’S DOLLARS AND POUNDS OF MEAT
AND FACTORY WARM AND PUSH FOR MORE MEAT. I WILL OPEN IT UP LIKE THAT. IT IS QUITE CONTROVERSIAL AND
COMPLEX. MAN: YOU WANT TO ADD TO THAT? MAN: SURE. MAN: THE UBIQUITOUS USE OF
ANTIBIOTICS IN MANY CASES IT IS BENEFICIAL, ACUTELY
INAPPROPRIATELY USED FOR PRODUCTIONS. BUT IT IS HAVING CONSEQUENCES. WE FOUND OUT IN AN INTERESTING
WAY. UC DAVIS, WE HAVE THE WORLD’S
LARGE AG SCHOOL, VET SCHOOL. WE HAVE SPECTACULAR NUMBERS OF
VETERINARIANS. JOHN MADDIGAN IS THE RESOURCE
FOR THIS. HE WROTE THE BOOK LITERALLY. THEY ARE BORN ABOUT THE SAME
TYPE OF YEAR EVERY YEAR SO THEY RACE AT THE SAME AGE. A BIG BARN NEAR DAVID THE FIRST
FOAL OF THE YEAR WITHIN THE NEXT FEW HOURS CAME DOWN WITH
DIARRHEA. WENT WITH HIS MOTHER IN THE
EVENING BUT THE SECOND DAY DEAD. SECOND FOAL DIARRHEA. THEY WERE GETTING DIARRHEA AND
IT WAS DEVASTATING. SO JOHN HAD HEARD ABOUT OUR WORK
AND WE HAD BASICALLY PROPOSED THAT THIS WAS AN AMALIAN
PHENOMENON. GET IT WHEN YOU ARE YOUNG. ANTIBIOTICS COULD HAVE KILLED IT
OFF. THAT’S WHAT HAPPENED TO THE
HORSES. MOTHERS DIDN’T HAVE THE BACTERIA
TO PASS IT ON. WE DEVELOPED A BACTERIA. TOOK US A WHILE. FOALS HAVE BEEN BORN ALL CAME
DOWN WITH C DIP INFECTION AND IT IS A NIGHTMARE. BY THIS POINT THE BARNS ARE FULL
OF SPORES AND EVERY FOAL IS COMING DOWN. I CAN GET THEM PROTECTED
BACTERIA. LIVE ON THE MILK. NEXT FOAL FINE. BASICALLY COMPLETELY ERADICATED
THE PROBLEM. WHAT ANTIBIOTICS HAD DONE IS
BASICALLY PUT THE ENTIRE NEXT GENERATION AT RISK BECAUSE THEY
HAVE LOST THIS BACTERIAL POPULATION. WE HAVE PROBABLY DONE THAT WITH
ALL OF OUR DOMESTIC ANIMALS. PRODUCTION ANIMALS, ZOO ANIMALS. WE BASICALLY MADE A BIT OF A
MESS. MAN: BEYOND THE AGRICULTURE, IT
IS VERY CLEAR USE FOR INFECTIONS IS WONDERFUL, BUT CERTAINLY WHEN
YOU TAKE ORAL ANTIBIOTICS IT DECIMATES THE GUT MICROBIOTA. CELLS CAN COME ALONG AND
WREAKING HAVOC. ANTIBIOTICS BECAUSE THEIR SAFETY
PROFILE IS SO PHENOMENAL HAVE BEEN USED JUST WAY TOO MUCH. NOW THERE IS A GLIMMER OF
RECOGNITION FROM CLINICS THAT THERE IS THIS COG THAT HASN’T
BEEN WEIGHED BEFORE. SO I AM HOPEFUL THE TITLE WILL
PLAY IN TERMS OF HOW FREQUENTLY THEY ARE USED AND LIMITED TO
SERIOUS MICROBIOTA INFECTIONS. EVERYBODY SHOULD BE HAVING
SERIOUS — THE PHYSICIAN SAYS LET’S TRY ANTIBIOTICS ASK IF A
WAIT AND SEE APPROACH IS APPROPRIATE. MAN: A LOT OF QUESTIONS THIS
WEEK HAD TO DO WITH THIS KIND OF RECOVERY. CAN WE COME BACK FROM THE BRINK
OF DISTINCTION? WE HAVE BEEN KIND OF MISS MORE
RISE — MESMERIZED BY THIS WESTERN DIET. INFLUENCED IT UNCONSCIOUSLY. CAN WE COME BACK AND RESTORE
OURSELVES. ONE OF THE THINGS I AM EXCITED
ABOUT IS WITH YOUR ASSIGNMENT YOU HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY WITH ALL
OF THE SPEAKERS AND ALL THAT YOU HAVE DONE IS TO COMPLETELY SPEAK
WHAT A RESTAURANT. YOU MENTIONED A LOT ABOUT FIBER,
WHERE DID SOMEBODY START. IF YOU LOOK AT THE FIFO
CAFETERIA, WHAT WOULD YOU DO AS A STARTING POINT? MAN: JUSTIN? YEAH. MOVE IT
A LITTLE BIT. MAN: CAN YOU HEAR ME? SO IF I WENT TO — I THINK
THE — YOU KNOW, IN TERMS OF SEEKING FIBER, I THINK THE WAY
CHRISTOPHER PHRASED IT IS REALLY PERFECT. JUST TO KIND OF SEEK REAL PLANT
BASED FOODS. I REALLY TRY TO STAY AWAY FROM
REFINED STARCHY FOODS THAT PROBABLY DON’T HAVE A LOT OF
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES. IN TERMS OF RECOVERY OF THE
MICROBIOTA, IT IS NOT CLEAR HOW MUCH DIVERSITY WE CAN GET BACK
JUST THROUGH DIET. THERE’S A GREAT MICROBIOLOGIST
WHO WON NATIONAL MEDAL OF SCIENCE LAST YEAR. HE LIKES TO SAY THE WORD IS
COVERED IN A FINE PET TINA OF SHED. THIS MEANS WE ARE CONSTANTLY
DOING A LOCAL CELL CONTINUALLY. WHETHER THE MICROBE IT IS
DEPENDENT ON HOW DIVERSE A DIET YOU ARE EATING INCLUDING THE
FIBER. YOU CAN ONLY FIND MICROBES
PRESENT IN THE PEE CEASE TOOL. WE KNOW FROM STUDYING
POPULATIONS THERE ARE MICROBES THAT ARE PRESENT THAT ARE JUST
NOT FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES. YOU CAN DEFINITELY INCREASE YOUR
DIVERSITY THROUGH DIET OVER THE SHORT TERM YOU WILL DEFINITELY
NOT ACQUIRE SOME OF THE MICROBES WE ARE INVOLVED WITH. WHAT THAT MEANS FOR OUR HEALTH
WE NO IDEA. MAN: THIS IS ANOTHER CASE TO
PROMOTE IMMIGRATION IT SOUNDS LIKE IT. MAN: IT IS TRUE. IN TERMS OF EXPOSURE TO
MICROBES, ABSOLUTELY. THE ONE OTHER POINT I WANTED TO
MAKE I DIDN’T HAVE TIME DURING MY TALK. PEOPLE ASK SO YOUR MICROBIOME IS
DEGRADING WHAT IS A BIG DEAL? THE MICROBES ARE IMPORTANT. WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR OUR
HEALTH. WE HAVE AN EPIDEMIC OF WESTERN
DISEASES. YOU ALL KNOW THEM HEAR THEM BY
NAME. CANCER, HEART DISEASE. THESE ARE THE MAJOR KILLERS. THIS IS WHAT IS FILLING OUR
HOSPITALS. IT IS NO LONGER INFECTIOUS IT IS
NOW CHRONIC DISEASES. THE COMMON DENOMINATOR IS ONE
THING, INFLAMMATION. THAT MAY MEAN HEART DISEASE FOR
YOU AND IT MAY MEAN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS FOR ME BECAUSE OF OUR
GENETIC ADVERSITY WE ARE HEADING TOWARD THIS. THE DYSBIOSIS HAPPENING IN OUR
GUTS IS ONE OF THE CRISES PULLING IT FORWARD. THE GREAT DEPTH OF PEOPLE LIVING
IN THE WESTERN WORLD.>>CHRISTOPHER YOU HAVE ANOTHER
38 SLIDES ON AMINO ACIDS. FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE BUSINESS
SCHOOL MAJORS IN THE ROOM CAN YOU TALK MORE ABOUT AMINO ACIDS
AND WHY YOU SHOULD CARE ABOUT THEM. MAN: THE POINT IS YOU SHOULDN’T
CARE. I HAVE BEEN SHOWING THESE SLIDES
TO A LOT OF FOLKS. (INDISCERNIBLE)
96 GOT THE QUESTION WRONG AND 14 DIETICIANS IN THE FRONT GOT
IT RIGHT. THERE’S REALLY PLENTY OF AMINO
ACIDS TO GO AROUND. THE SHORT STORY IS THE PLANT
PROTEIN, THE DISTRIBUTION IS NOT PERFECT HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE
PLAYED SCRABBLE BEFORE AND THERE’S A LOT OF E’S AND N’S AND
NOT P’S AND Q’S. I LIKE TO THINK OF IT AS PEOPLE
GETTING TWO BAGS OF SCRABBLE LETTERS ON THE BOARD. YOU CAN’T FILL THAT BOARD WITH
MORE LETTERS THAN IS IN ONE BAG. HAVE YOU PLAYED UNTIL THE BAG IS
GONE. THERE’S NO PLACE TO PUT THE
WORDS. IT IS LIKE PROTEIN. IF YOU FELT YOU DIDN’T HAVE
ENOUGH X’S OR J’S GET ANOTHER EXTRA BAG AND ANOTHER. THEY ARE NOT PERFECT BUT DO YOU
HAVE ENOUGH TO DO IT. JUST THAT FOOD STOP SWEATING THE
PROTEIN THING. ENJOY FOOD. THIS RESTAURANT YOU ARE GOING TO
HAVE, DON’T BE WORRIED ABOUT BALANCING ALL OF THIS STUFF OUT. MAKE INCREDIBLY DELICIOUS FOODS,
GLOBAL CUISINE. MAN: WHAT ABOUT THE CORN BEAN
LIKE WE ALL HEARD COMPLIMENTARY PLANS A.
MAN: (INDISCERNIBLE) COMPLIMENTARY. THIS IS A QUICK THING. IF YOU REQUIRE 40 GRAMS OF
PROTEIN AND YOU WERE A VEGAN AND YOU ONLY GOT 40 GRAMS OF PROTEIN
YOU WOULD NOT REACH YOUR REQUIREMENT. THE DISTRIBUTION WOULD NOT BE
PERFECT. IF YOU ARE A VEGAN WHO NEEDS 40
GRAMS OF PROTEIN AND YOU ATE 80 THE PROPORTIONS DON’T MATTER ANY
MORE, BY THE TIME YOU ATE 80 IT DIDN’T PATTER WHAT THE
DISTRIBUTION WAS ANY MORE. A COUPLE AMINO ACIDS THERE’S A
LOT YOU CAN BREAK DOWN IN THE GUT. I LIKE THE SCRABBLE THING
BECAUSE IT MAKES US THINK HOW DIFFERENT THE PROPORTIONS ARE. MAN: IF YOU COME BACK NEXT WEEK
ANNA LAPPE WILL BE SPEAKING HERE. MAN: GREAT. MAN: SHE IS THE OFFSPRING. WE WILL HAVE TO CHECK OUR
MICROBIOTA. MAN: WHO HAS A QUESTION? RIGHT HERE. MAN: (INAUDIBLE QUESTION)
MAN: WHY DON’T YOU TRY TO REPEAT THAT. THANK YOU. MAN: GOOD QUESTION. I GET THAT A LOT. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER GMO
CROPS WILL AFFECT THE MAC AND MICROBE IN YOUR GUT THE ABILITY
TO DEGRADE THOSE MACS. GMO COVERS A WIDE RANGE OF WHAT
CAN HAPPEN IN A PLANT. BUT THERE IS NONE OF THESE
TECHNOLOGIES THAT I AM AWARE OF THAT WOULD HAVE ANY IMPACT ON
THE FIBER OR THE MICROBES IN YOUR GUT ABILITY TO UTILIZE
FIBER. AN EXTENSION OF THIS QUESTION IS
WHAT ABOUT THINGS LIKE PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS
THAT WE SPRAY ON. IF YOU GO TO SOMETHING LIKE
ROUNDUP, IT INHIBITS THE PATHWAY THAT WE KNOW MICROBES ALSO HAVE. NOBODY HAS LOOKED AT THAT IN
DETAIL. THEORETICALLY THERE’S A
POSSIBILITY CHEMICALS WE SPRAY ON OUR FOOD CAN HAVE AN IMPACT. MAN: GOT A QUESTION. (INDISCERNIBLE QUESTION). MAN: I AM NOT SURE HOW THAT TIES
INTO THIS BUT I WILL TAKE A STAB. I GOT MILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF
GRANTS TO STUDY SOY. OF ALL OF THE PLANT KINGDOM
FOODS IT IS KIND OF COOL. IT HAS MORE PROTEIN AND MORE FAT
THAN ALL OF THE OTHER BEANS AND HAS THIS COOL STUFF
(INDISCERNIBLE) IT IS AN ESTROGEN LIKE MOLECULE IN
PLANTS. THIS WAS A BIG HEYDAY OF WHY IT
EXPLAINS WHY ASIAN AMERICANS DON’T HAVE HIP FRACTURES AND
MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS. A LOT OF THAT HAS SUBSIDED. THERE HAS BEEN A BACKLASH OF THE
MEN ARE GOING TO GROW MAN BOOBS. STAY AWAY FROM THAT AND HORMONE
THERAPY MAKES BREAST CANCER WORSE. WE CAN’T PRESCRIBE THIS FOR
WOMEN AT RISK OF BREAST CANCER. ALL OF THAT HAS GONE AWAY. IT IS NOT A SUPER FOOD. IT IS NOT GOT ALL OF THIS RISK. IT IS REALLY A PRETTY GOOD SOLID
FOOD. MY BIGGEST CONCERN WITH SOY IS
ONE WE SUBSIDIZE IT AND GROW AN AMAZING AMOUNT FOR ANIMALS. WE ARE NOT EATING MUCH OF THE
SOYBEANS. WE ARE FEEDING IT TO LIVESTOCK. WHEN WE EAT IT THERE’S ENOUGH OF
A HEY LOW MAP. THE SOY MILK THEY TOOK STUFF
OUT. TOFU YOU MAKE OUT OF SOY MILK. LET’S NOT GO TORE THE SOY ICE
CREAM OR CANDY BAR? THERE’S CRAP. THAT IS AMERICANS TAKING THE SOY
THING AND REFORMULATING IT AND PROCESSING IT. THERE’S A LOT OF ISSUES WITH
THIS. I DON’T HAVE A TICK LEAR
CONCERN. IT IS A FINE FOOD AND IT IS OVER
HYPED AND OVER BLAMED AND INCLUDED IN YOUR DIET. PROBABLY GOT SOME GREAT MAC IN
THE SOY. MAN: PHYTOESTROGENS ARE THERE
AND THEY DO AMAZING THINGS. YES. MAN: ONE MORE QUESTION. IN THE BACK. (INDISCERNIBLE QUESTION)
MAN: THE QUESTION WAS WHAT TYPE OF FIBER, THAT’S THE BIG
QUESTION THEN YOU BROKE IT DOWN INTO WHETHER IT SHOULD BE
INSOLUBLE OR SOLUBLE. IT IS AN UNPLEXED QUESTION YOU
MENTIONED JUICING WHICH I THINK IS INTERESTING. I HAD ACTUALLY A DONOR TO A LAB
TACK ME INTO HIS HOUSE HE WAS GIVING ME THIS BIG CHECK. IT WAS KIND OF COOL. HE SHOWED ME THIS JUICER THAT HE
HAD. I TOLD HIM YOU SHOULD JUICE YOUR
VEGETABLES AND EAT WHAT COMES OUT OF THE BACK OF THAT MACHINE. HE STARTED DOING THAT. SAID HE FELT PHENOMENAL. (LAUGHTER)
MAN: SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE. THE PROBLEM REALLY WITH JUICING
IS YOU ARE GETTING RID OF A LOT OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES. THERE’S PROBABLY A FER MENTAL
ASPECT OF THIS. THERE’S BEEN SOME EVIDENCE THAT
INCREASES MOBILITY. THAT’S AN IMPORTANT THING. A LOT OF THE SOLUBLE FIBER DOES. THE JUICE PORTION OF THAT ALSO
HAS A LOT OF SUGAR IN IT AND OTHER GOOD NUTRIENTS. I WOULD EAT THE FOOD YOU ARE
STICKING IN THE JUICER. IN TERMS OF COMPLEXITY OF FIBER,
FIBER IS THIS MASSIVE CATEGORY THERE ARE DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS
WHETHER YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT CHEMICAL DEFINITIONS. OUR RESOLUTION RIGHT NOW IS GO
AFTER A DIVERSITY OF PLANTS. VEGETABLES, FRUITS, LEGUMES,
WHOLE GRAINS, NUTS. EVENTUALLY WHEN WE GET EVERYBODY
UP TO SPEED ON THAT WE WILL BE ABLE TO ATTACK THE PERSONALIZED
ASPECT OF THIS AND SAY EEK AFTER EATING THIS DIET YOU NEED TO
INCREASE PROPORTION OF THIS BACTERIA. RIGHT NOW THE RESOLUTION IS EAT
A LOT OF DIFFERENT THINGS. MAN: GO AHEAD AND GOOGLE A LIST
OF FOODS AND SEE THE PORTIONS OF INSOLUBLE AND SOLUBLE FIBER,
ALMOST EVERYTHING THAT HAS FIBER HAS BOTH. IF YOUR DOCTOR SAID I WANT YOU
TO ONLY EAT INSOLUBLE FIBER. MAN: YOU CANNOT FIND ONE WITHOUT
THE OTHER. THEIR PROPORTIONS ARE DIFFICULT
A LITTLE. GO HALF IN HALF. MAN: LET’S EAT MORE FIBER
TOMORROW. MAN: AND FER MEANT THE FOODS. INVITE US BACK NEXT YEAR. THANKS FOR COMING. (APPLAUSE)
COME JOIN ANNA LAPPE NEXT WEEK.

Randall Smitham

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3 COMMENTS

  1. colonyofcells iamamachine2 Posted on April 24, 2017 at 9:57 pm

    Most people are descended from agriculture groups who have been eating unrefined starch staple foods for thousands of years so most people will do well on diets high in unrefined staple foods like whole grains and tubers like sweet potato, potato, yam, taro, cassava. Other staple foods are unripe plantain, soy, breadfruit, sago palm pith flour. All animal products have 0 fiber and are more like junk food, whereas plants have lots of micronutrients and fiber. Can just take vitamin b12 supplement and reduce or eliminate animal products. Instead of saying fiber, more useful to tell people to eat whole grains or sweet potato or potato plus vegetables and take vitamin b12 supplement. Corporations are great at adding refined fiber to unhealthy processed foods so need to emphasize real foods like what you find in local farmers markets. Fermented foods like kimchi and miso can be high in salt which is linked to high blood pressure, strokes and stomach cancer.

    Reply
  2. María Richardson Posted on June 29, 2018 at 6:12 pm

    Thank you for uploading this fascinating presentation 🙂

    Reply
  3. Yash Soni Posted on December 5, 2018 at 11:34 am

    Personalized Nutrition Industry Report | CAGR OF 7.03% FROM 2020 TO 2025

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    The overall goal of personalized nutrition is to preserve or increase health using genetic, phenotypic, medical, nutritional, and other relevant information about individuals to deliver more specific healthy eating guidance and other nutritional products and services.

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