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How Knowledge is Power in Nutrition | Dr. Wendy Pogozelski | TEDxSUNYGeneseo

Translator: Rhonda Jacobs
Reviewer: Ellen Maloney Good evening. It’s a privilege to be here. I would like to thank the organizers
for doing a great job. And I’m very happy to begin
sharing with you some of my experiences, and I really want to emphasize the point
that knowledge is power. So when I came to Geneseo,
I had to teach a course in metabolism. And this is metabolism. So talk about needing
some memory techniques. If you’re learning
all these reaction pathways, the students really had to pull out
some memory links. But also, as a teacher, I felt that
I was being deathly dull in teaching this. So I knew that I had to find some ways to make this interesting
and memorable for the students. So I thought, well, everybody eats, right? The obvious thing would be to link
biochemistry with nutrition. You’d think that the biochemistry
textbooks would do this, but they don’t do it. So I said, let’s look at some of these
controversial diets that are out there, and maybe I can compare these diets
and bring this information into class, and make it a little more exciting
for the students to learn. I especially began focusing
on some of these low-carb diets, there are even ones in Russia and France,
Australia and across the United States. And these diets were very useful
because they illuminated many of the things about metabolism
and about insulin in particular. The approach was very good in my classes. The students really liked the approach
of linking biochemistry with nutrition. And since I’d read
a couple billion papers, I thought, why don’t I just
write this up in a paper and save some other
biochemistry professors the trouble? But I never expected all of this work
to actually benefit me personally. But then in February of 2007, I began
experiencing some strange symptoms. I had raging thirst, debilitating fatigue,
and I’m not being overly melodramatic, this is really the case, blurry vision, I couldn’t even distinguish
the people in the front row of my freshman chemistry class. And then crazy, overnight weight loss,
which for all my life had been impossible, but was suddenly possible. So I had this diagnosis,
“You have type 1 diabetes.” And I was very surprised by this,
and devastated, of course. But it was unusual because I was age 40, and usually type 1 diabetes
is the autoimmune attack on the pancreatic beta cells
that make insulin, and usually that affects people
in adolescence. That’s why it’s usually
called juvenile diabetes. But in fact, about ten percent
of the newly diagnosed type 1 diabetics are in adulthood. Since I had spent three of four years
studying the metabolic effects of various diets,
I thought I knew just what to do. So I, of course, began taking insulin, but I also began reducing
the carbohydrates in my diet, and I did that partly because I knew that carbohydrate is the biggest
dietary contributor to high glucose. And I also know that it’s difficult
to estimate the amount of carbohydrate and then match that with estimating
the amount of insulin needed. So you just minimize your errors
with a low carbohydrate approach. And I had very nice,
flat, normal blood sugars. My doctor said that I had the blood sugars
of a non-diabetic, basically, on this approach, and that I was his best patient ever. And being an academic,
I’m addicted to gold stars, and so I was very pleased with that. So, then my endocrinologist
insisted that I visit a dietician, and the dietician did not give me
a gold star, not at all. She was, in fact, appalled by my diet. And what she told me is that you have to eat a minimum
of 130 grams of carbohydrates a day. I was eating, maybe 30-50 grams per day. So I tried to protest. She said, “No, the brain needs
130 grams of glucose.” And of course,
as a biochemistry professor, and someone who had been teaching
about metabolism for a long time, I said, “Well, what about
gluconeogenesis?” Gluconeogenesis is the body’s
making its own sugar. Usually the brain survives
quite nicely on that. Well, she said, “The American
Diabetes Association, the ADA, gives me these guidelines, so I have to
give these guidelines to you.” And again I still
tried to fight a little bit. And what she did was she got
the rest of the health team to enforce her position, and one of the nurse practitioners said, “I want you to eat chocolate;
I want you to live.” Now who can resist medical
advice to eat chocolate, right? And, I kind of do understand the link
between chocolate and living, but, in any case, I was in a quandary
as to whether I should accept this or not. So here is the American
Diabetes Association diet. In the guidelines
that are published by the ADA, the authors, of course, say
that carbohydrates turn to glucose. The more carbs you eat,
the higher your blood glucose goes. But then they bring up the food pyramid,
the USDA food pyramid, and say, at the bottom of the food pyramid
is bread, cereal, rice and pasta, and you need six-eight servings
of these per day. So it’s pretty much a very similar diet
to the actual food pyramid. And then, of course, those carbohydrates
will then need to be covered with insulin or with drugs. So, I was in this quandary.
Which pathway should I trust? I’d already had some good effects
with a low carbohydrate diet, but here was the medical establishment
giving me some opposition. So what would you do? Well, I was actually trained
to respond well to authority, and any anti-authoritative impulses
were kind of squelched. Also, I’m not somebody
who distrusts the medical establishment. I’m not someone who tells cancer patients
that they should just use essential oils, or that kale smoothies
are going to cure everything. So I really believe
in knowledge and training. So my tendency was to really
trust the medical establishment, to assume that they knew more than I did. But I also had my own training. And so as a bench chemist,
I feel that I’d really been trained in recognizing a good experiment, and I felt that I was trained
in understanding the basis for some of these recommendations. And so that’s what I am going to do here. I’m going to try to give you
a feel for how knowledge is power, and for understanding
a little bit about how diabetes can make you much more
confident about your choices. We haven’t had any graphs yet, right?
So let’s look at some graphs. So here’s blood glucose concentration. And these would be hours after
the start of a meal, here on the Y-axis. So we’re starting
at the beginning of a meal. And the green here is a non-diabetic. So normal blood glucose
is about 85 milligrams per deciliter. A type 2 diabetic, for example, might be starting at a much higher
blood glucose to begin with. And then as the meal progresses, as the glucose is absorbed by the body,
of course, blood sugar rises, and it rises much greater
in the type 2 diabetic. And then, of course, insulin begins
helping the cells take that back in, and the blood sugar decreases. And within about two hours,
in a non-diabetic, blood sugar is back to normal. In a [diabetic],
it takes much longer to decrease, and in this case, never returns to normal. And these are very typical results. So the thing to realize here is that carbohydrate is really
made of glucose molecules, by and large, I’m simplifying a lot. But of course, these glucose molecules
are released from the carbohydrate, and they contribute
a great deal to blood glucose. But that glucose has to be
metabolized to give energy, so that glucose has to enter cells. The glucose can’t just cross a membrane,
it needs a special transporter. And so there are proteins
in cell membranes that are very specific for glucose that will enable
the glucose to enter cells. Some cells, like red blood cells,
for example, have a transporter that’s pretty much always open
and the glucose can just slide in. Other cells, like muscle and fat,
have to have insulin. And so insulin can be thought of
as the key that unlocks the gate for that glucose transporter
to let in glucose. And I’ll show you how that works
in muscle and fat cells. Our components here are insulin, our insulin receptor in the membrane, and then in muscle and fat, the glucose receptor
is actually sequestered inside the cell. And only when insulin
binds to the receptor are there a series of signalling reactions that then activate this glucose receptor
to move to the membrane. Let’s look at that: there’s insulin
binding to the receptor, there’s the glucose receptor
moving to the membrane, and then this lets glucose
into those cells. So the point is that you really need
insulin for that process to work. Now in type 2 diabetes,
insulin is present, but the downstream reactions
are affected in some way. We call this insulin resistance. Insulin is made, but
the cells no longer respond. So the big difference between
type 1 and type 2 diabetes would be either the presence of insulin
or the absence of insulin, by and large; we’ll talk more about that. But we know that insulin
is a very, very powerful hormone. This is a three-year-old boy,
referred to as JL in the original Journal of the American
Medical Association paper. He was one of the first children
actually treated with insulin back in 1922. This is a very disturbing picture
of him in his mother’s arms. He weighed 19 pounds at this stage. And this is him three months later,
after being injected with insulin. So you can see that this
is a very powerful hormone. Okay, so the type 1 versus the type 2: In type 1, we really have
too little insulin, so it’s not getting into cells. And then the other thing
to realize about insulin is that insulin puts the brakes
on the body’s ability to make glucose – that process I mentioned
called gluconeogenesis. Without insulin,
gluconeogenesis occurs greatly. In type 2 diabetes, cells
become insensitive to insulin, and because a lot of biology
is all about feedback, what happens initially is that the body
actually turns out more insulin, and then eventually,
there can be insulin insufficiency, but at first, individuals
with type 2 diabetes are hyperinsulinemic – they actually
have a lot of extra insulin – and insulin is a fat storage hormone. So in type 2 diabetes,
the extra insulin is driving obesity as well as obesity probably
driving the insulin resistance, to a certain extent. Okay, but in both cases,
there’s high blood glucose. And what’s wrong with that? Why is that dangerous? Well, glucose is very reactive, and one of the things
it reacts with is proteins, and it gums up proteins, basically,
it makes them very sticky. And one of the proteins
that’s largely affected is hemoglobin. That is the protein that carries oxygen
from the lungs to the cells. Now, where is oxygen delivery the worst? Well, in the extremities. So by the time hemoglobin
gets to your toes, it’s really not working so well. But now gum that up with glucose, and now your hemoglobin delivery of oxygen
is even more compromised. So one of the big risks
of high blood sugar is having inadequate oxygen delivery
to the cells in the extremities and those cells begin to die. One of the reasons why untreated diabetics
or insufficiently treated diabetics will often have to have toes amputated
or even feet amputated. Kidney cells are also greatly affected. There’s an osmotic effect; the presence of lots
of molecules of glucose means that lots of water rushes in
to try to dilute the glucose, and so that’s the reason for the increased
thirst with high blood sugar. And then, of course,
there are all kinds of diseases associated with hyperinsulinemia, but with blood sugar itself,
there’s damage to blood vessels, and increased risk
of cardiovascular events. Now, if you ask the average
person on the street, they’re going to say that diabetics
shouldn’t eat things that are sweet, but they tend to think that bread
or crackers or rice or potatoes are going to be fine. Well, in fact, both of these have very,
very similar effects on blood sugar. Now, I mentioned that hemoglobin
gets gummed up with glucose. So there’s actually a measure of this,
it’s called the hemoglobin A1c, and you might have seen this
on some lab sheets or you may have had
this test done yourself. So this is a measure
of how much of your hemoglobin actually has a glucose molecule
sticking to it. And most people have a fair amount – four to five percent of their hemoglobin
glycosylated at any time. So a non-diabetic would have
about four to five percent hemoglobin A1c. An untreated diabetic might actually
have as much as 14 percent. And usually targets
are below seven percent for treating diabetics. Well, here’s a study of the effect
of a low-carb diet vs. a high-carb diet. In some type 2 diabetics who started out
with glycosylated hemoglobin between nine and ten percent. One group was treated
with a high-carb diet and the other group was treated
with a low-carb diet. And after five weeks,
so just a little over a month, the hemoglobin A1c
in the low-carb group had decreased. Okay, now this is just
the very tip of the iceburg for me explaining
the molecular basis of nutrition and how we can use knowledge
and clinical studies. But the ultimate power
is your own experience, right? So I did the N=1 experiment. So N meaning just one subject, right? Me. Alright, so fortunately,
some new sensor technology can monitor your blood sugar all the time. And the red here is my blood sugars
on a higher carbohydrate diet, not even 130 grams,
probably more like 75 or 80 grams. And this is a lower-carb diet,
more about 50 grams per day. So you can see that there were
much greater excursions, even though I was trying to be smart
about dosing my insulin and timing things correctly. Now, the average blood sugar here
was just about the same. But, these peaks and these valleys
made it much more dangerous. So I definitely, you can see,
came to the conclusion that a low-carbohydrate diet, in my case,
as a type 1 diabetic, is better. Of course that means going against
some of the nutritional establishment, although I do have quite a bit
of support for this position. Alright, so you guys are kind of saying, “Well, wait, I don’t have diabetes,
what can I get out of this?!” Well, chances are you probably
do know someone with diabetes, right? Not counting me. But about twenty percent of the population
right now in the United States is either diabetic or pre-diabetic, meaning their blood sugars are elevated but not quite at the range
considered to be diabetic. The other things
is that even for a non-diabetic, it’s useful to think about
this concept of overall glycemic load. And while most people can tolerate
a fair amount of carbohydrate, there might be a certain amount
which people cannot tolerate. And then also, I really want to emphasize,
it’s a great idea to learn some science and then base your decisions on them. And as you’re learning things,
really go after the ‘why’s,’ okay? Not just a bunch of facts. We can’t always rely on authorities. And I really want you to be inspired
to know that knowledge really is power. And my philosophy, and the one that I try
to encourage my students to have, and my whole goal in my teaching,
is to empower my students. So I have the philosophy
that I attribute to Dr. Gerald Reaven, who came up with the term
‘metabolic syndrome,’ and he says, basically, what we need
is more information and less advice. Thank you very much. (Applause)

Randall Smitham



  1. SinisterSkip Posted on April 22, 2015 at 9:15 pm

    Interesting. My diet is about two thirds carbs though (rice crackers, smoothies, bananas, oatmeal etc.), but I do weightlifting 3 times a week. I'd like to see how we respond to highcarb meals, as we have more muscle mass that is more insuline sensitive (compared to our fatcells and compared to the average non-trained joe's insuline sensitivity). I predict this will significantly reduce both size and time of insuline/blood sugar spikes. Also, when you combine carbs with fats, protein and fiber, (basically a balanced meal), the glycemic index can be thrown out the window, as the carbs are absorbed much slower that way. Many studies on glycemic index are done on 1. fasted people (usually not realistic) 2. with the carbs in isolation (usually not realistic).

    I'm not pro-carb persé. I've done great on a moderate fat+moderate carb diet. Just saying we need to be really careful with going against high carb diets for healthy people. Usually the carbs themselves aren't the problem, it's the crapload of processed foods (that tend to be high empty carb) that don't satiate, yet make up a large part of the USA's average diet.

  2. CLJ Posted on April 23, 2015 at 8:16 am

    Thank you Dr Pogozelski!! Same battle happening for 7 year old nephew, and it's like pulling teeth to wake them up to something that seems so obvious.

  3. Teedjay Gendron Posted on April 23, 2015 at 1:14 pm

    Its interesting but, she only talk about the low glucose in blud on her low carb diet and completely forgot to check if the brain is afectet by this low carb diet, no study or numbers on this side ? In the book Thinking fast and slow by Daniel Kahneman, I remember a study showing that the brain is less lasy to do high effort thinking when people have eaten carbs.   Here I find it :

     The nervous system consumes more glucose than most other parts of the body, and effortful mental activity appears to be especially expensive in the currency of glucose. When you are actively involved in difficult cognitive reasoning or engaged in a task that requires self-control, your blood glucose level drops. The effect is analogous to a runner who draws down glucose stored in her muscles during a sprint. The bold implication of this idea is that the effects of ego depletion could be undone by ingesting glucose, and Baumeister and his colleagues have confirmed this hypothesis in several experiments. Volunteers in one of their studies watched a short silent film of a woman being interviewed and were asked to interpret her body language. While they were performing the task, a series of words crossed the screen in slow succession. The participants were specifically instructed to ignore the words, and if they found their attention drawn away they had to refocus the concentration on the woman’s behavior. This act of self-control was known to cause ego depletion. All the volunteers drank some lemonade before participating in a second task. The lemonade was sweetened with glucose for half of them and with Splenda for the others. Then all participants were given a task in which they needed to overcome an intuitive response to get the correct answer. Intuitive errors are normally much more frequent among ego-depleted people, and the drinkers of Splenda showed the expected depletion effect. On the other hand, the glucose drinkers were not depleted. Restoring the level of available sugar in the brain had prevented the deterioration of performance. It will take some time and much further research to establish whether the tasks that cause glucose-depletion also cause the momentary arousal that is reflected in increases of pupil size and heart rate.”

  4. Patricia Keegan Posted on April 23, 2015 at 1:32 pm

    Fewer carbs….less brain fog for me!

    Much literature out there that the brain is made up of fat and needs fat to function. Glucose can come from protein if the body needs it.

    Reference "Big Fat Surprise", by Nina Teicholz…..one of many.

  5. Jonathan Bubb Posted on April 23, 2015 at 11:49 pm

    that was a wonderful talk.  i really enjoyed the fact that lay people could understand what you had to say, and that you added your own experiences.  i remember hearing that you had been diagnosed as a type 1, and i wondered why that would be.  you weren't a young person, and i knew you took good care of yourself, so why type 1?  now i wonder if it wasn't because there needed to be someone to investigate the conventional thinking on this subject, and help those of us who don't have the knowledge and skills to advance treatment in this area.  i appreciate all the skills you have in this area due to your hard work gaining the proper education, and putting forth the effort to be inquisitive about accepted knowledge, and the possibility that there may be a better way of doing things.

  6. Jonathan Bubb Posted on April 23, 2015 at 11:50 pm

    for some reason the post below bears my husbands name instead of mine.  sandra bubb

  7. Maria Lizotte Posted on April 27, 2015 at 11:07 pm


  8. Type1Vegan Posted on May 1, 2015 at 7:06 pm

    That's fine for you to do what works for you, but I just want to say, I've been type 1 diabetic for 24 years and I did the low carb thing in the past, but now I eat a fairly low fat and fairly low carb (basically, everything in the middle) whole foods vegan diet. I tend to avoid grains and white potatoes just because it saves me some insulin, but because I think they're bad or because my sugar will rise uncontrollably (it won't, if I give insulin, I'm fine). My a1c last check was 4.9 (I try to keep my sugars under 100), my good cholesterol was 67, my bad cholesterol was 42. So, yours is not the only way. It's one thing to have good sugars, but I also want to be healthy apart from my sugars. When I ate very low carb and high fat, my insulin resistance was so high that if I ate so much as a small apple, my sugar would shoot up and I'd need, like, 4 units of insulin to cover it. It meant I could NEVER eat carbs anymore, not even fruit. But now that I don't restrict carbs and an not eating so much fat, that same apple only takes 1 unit of insulin, and even if I failed to cover it, my sugar works only rise to about 140.

  9. dannijonesXD Posted on May 18, 2015 at 10:47 am

    Is she promoting the Ketogenic Diet? I wonder where her other sources of nutrients are coming from.. like say higher in fat or protein to compensate the loss in carbohydrates. 

    I'm just saying, if she is promoting the ketogenic diet, doesn't this promote Diabetic Ketoacidosis? (probably also explains the limit given by the ADA on the 130g of carbohydrates)

  10. Kelly Tan Peterson Posted on June 7, 2015 at 12:03 am

    Knowledge is Power indeed! If I hadn't have this knowledge seven years ago, I could be a diabetic by now. Great talk Dr. Wendy Pogozelski!

  11. SunTzu Posted on July 28, 2015 at 6:00 am

    Any smart person would not follow the main stream, industrial/pharmaceutical "nutricional" piramid. I love TED talks, but they are too short sometimes. These is a huge subject.

  12. Pierre Le Roux Posted on September 1, 2015 at 10:14 pm

    Hu????? Dont understand Polish!

  13. Joshua Erny Posted on September 27, 2015 at 6:48 pm

    So she's been a "biochemistry professor and had been teaching about biochemistry a long time" but didn't see anything wrong with her diet beforehand until she got diabetes? How can she be a professor and the title of this video be "How Knowledge is Power in Nutrition" if she didn't even know her diet was leading her to diabetes until she actually got the disease? If she truly had the knowledge previously, she wouldn't have made this video because she would have prevented herself from getting diabetes in the first place. At 8:36 she says: "In type 2 diabetes, insulin is present, but the downstream reactions are affected in some way". So basically she has no idea what causes insulin resistance. She's a professor and the video is titled "How Knowledge is Power…" and yet no new information is given- just a general video on how low carb normalized her blood glucose (she didn't say if she was cured of diabetes or not). I wish people would stop putting out more of the same simplified information we already know. Some high carb vegan gurus would argue that dietary fat is what "gums" up the receptor at the cell site which leads to insulin not working properly. I want to know if THAT theory has any validity. We need real answers, not more people making videos who don't really have extensive knowledge on the topic.

  14. FeelGoodGold Posted on January 25, 2016 at 11:51 am

    The information in this video is very educational

  15. Scot Campbell Posted on February 9, 2016 at 1:16 am

    Eat greens!

  16. musiclistener211 Posted on February 18, 2016 at 1:49 pm

    From my research, the best way to handle this is to eat whole food carbohydrates, especially those high in fiber, such as fruits and vegetables, and in excessive quantities. A diet of almost exclusively whole fruits and vegetables ideal. You would be surprised that the glucose release from these foods is slow, and the glucose spike is relatively minor.

  17. lea perrins Posted on February 27, 2016 at 12:49 am

    Honest to God some of these comments are absolutely MORONIC. Did anyone actually listen here or do you all want to jump on the bandwagon so you can argue about food??

    Did anyone actually understand the message behind this talk, or is everyone brain dead?? PLEASE tell me someone got it!!

  18. Terry Zimmer Posted on February 28, 2016 at 6:02 am

    I have cured 20 type-2 diabetics Abu am surprised you are not aware of how to do it.

    If a type 2 diabetic changes to a whole food plant based diet he will no longer need diabetic medicine in 3 days to 2 weeks. That means high carb, no meat, no diary, and very little oil. Gone.

    Just try it for 24 hours and your sugar reading the next morning will be lower than you have ever seen it.

    All this technical B.S. And 100% wrong.

    If you are a type 1 diabetic, you will reduce your need for insulin by 50% which is the difference between dying with diabetes and dying from diabetes.

    Just 24 hours with no meat, no diabetes and no oil. Cured for type 2 diabetics.

    See dr John mcdougall and Neal Bernard on diabetes.

    She sounds like she knows what she is talking about but is 100% wrong.

    Just try no meat, no dairy for 24 hours.

  19. Live-Torsion-Paradox Posted on March 2, 2016 at 1:07 pm

    Concentrating on the one or two contributing chemical factors in nutrition without broader context seems very reductive. As much as isolating the 'causal' chemical elements in a given illness seems important, the effects of a range of accompanying ingredients and trace components in a given food, surely, is required to understand the body's reaction to food – particularly whole foods which, biochemically speaking, have a range of trace ingredients that act synergistically with the body's metabolic process. Our bodies are not labs or petri dishes where certain chemical reactions occur in isolation. This approach strikes me (on surface reading, here) as lacking broader contextual and longitudinal data, in vivo, to be appropriate to apply to the complex working environment of a human body over time. There is great work being done on nutrition and population studies out there and great meta analysis is coming out on this and many other modern, nutritional maladies, all the time (just go to www.pubmed.gov or www.nutritionfacts.org). No mention of or reference to any such research here – Why?

  20. Rita Dagys Posted on March 14, 2016 at 10:15 pm

    But she's blending type-one and type two diabetes. I can agree with her views on on type one. But type 2 is not caused by sugar, but by lipoglucgenesis. It is fat that causes, that is inter-cellular fat clongs the opening that woyuld normally allow insulin in to power the cell with glucose. Meat and Dairy lobby is fighting this.

  21. Jim Bedore Posted on April 17, 2016 at 11:57 am

    As a type 2 for 35 years, I have been through all of this. The speaker is spot on. Thanks to my eye Dr. For and Dr Westman for saving me from a poor diabetic control.my A1C now below 7 for 3 years. Thank you for giving this TED talk. My doctors don' t think it's a good idea?

  22. FeelGoodGold Posted on April 25, 2016 at 12:40 pm

    That is AWESOME!!! I am definitely going to check this stuff out

  23. Tommy (Sambo Ronin) Doyle Posted on May 5, 2016 at 10:35 pm

    I just got diagnosed with LADA as well.

  24. Tommy (Sambo Ronin) Doyle Posted on May 5, 2016 at 10:39 pm

    I have Lada I was just recently diagnosed, I am also a athlete having difficulty with what kind of diet I should use.

  25. joe schmo Posted on June 27, 2016 at 12:33 pm

    The biochemistry textbooks don't link biochemistry with nutrition? And when is that going to change? Is there any push towards making that change now that functional medicine is clearly the wave of the future. Or are they just going to make those poor medical students study, and memorize, in a meaningless vacuum into the 22nd century? We'll see.

  26. Jennifer Stitzel Posted on August 18, 2016 at 5:56 pm

    Everyone is different in how many carbs to eat per meal.I was diagnosed with LADA, and right away I went to diabetic classes and they were geared more on type 2 diabetics so I cut my carbs a lot and lost a lot of weight. I am now eating about 45 carbs per meal on a insulin pump and my weight is great so everyone is different…I recommend a heart healthy diet.

  27. My Thoughts Posted on August 19, 2016 at 5:48 pm

    Super informative.
    Interesting approach.
    Interesting new studies chosen.
    New perspective inside the low-carb idea.

  28. Ricardo Felipe Guzmán Oelrich Posted on August 24, 2016 at 10:24 am

    she should investigate the benefits of the whole foods vegan diet, and you are really really wrong if you compare the spike in blood sugar from white rice and pasta to that of fruit:/

  29. David Dos Santos Posted on September 16, 2016 at 9:35 am

    +Dark-sheep13 you are 100% spot on and by far the most accurate comment on here.. can't believe this BS is still crippling today's perception of what true evidence-based nutrition really is. This quack should be put behind bars!

  30. Gib Gob Posted on September 22, 2016 at 10:20 am

    So did she take the dieticians advice or not?

  31. white_rabbitt Posted on September 25, 2016 at 7:57 am

    This was a very interesting talk and a good starting point! A couple of points though that would have increased the validity of her results. I would have liked a mention of the different types of Carbs. We know that not all carbs are the same. Low GI and High GI carbs are metabolized differently in the body and have different effects on blood glucose levels.

    Also, while positive results for maintaining steady BG levels were shown, we only saw a measurement of one type of effect (BG levels). But many effects should have been monitored. What about fatigue, light headedness during exercise etc. These are symptoms experienced by those on low carb diets and are important to know before we can make an informed decision.

    Even more importantly, what was eaten? Was it fish, legumes, vegetables? Were major changes made to other aspects of her diet as well? (ie giving up alchohol). How often did she eat during the day? How much exercise was done during the experiment (can a low carb diet sustain an active person)? What about fluids (juice or water??). These are all important variables that significantly change the results of this experiment.

    All in all, more study are needed but in the meantime we can follow after the speakers good example in listening to advice but also trying different things to find out what works best for you.

  32. joe schmo Posted on October 5, 2016 at 11:19 am

    Cancer patients? Guess what, the same thing works to prevent cancer and and reduce tumor size – a low carb, non-glucose-inducing, non-insulinogenic diet. Most cancers will start shrinking. This works a whole lot better than chemo drugs. Yeah, the medical establishment doesn't want you knowing that cancer, like diabetes, can be controlled with diet.

  33. Lilly Rose Posted on October 19, 2016 at 6:05 pm

    haha vegan whole foods diet including all the fruit, whole grains has proved to reverse diabeties, cancer look at the chanel nutritionfacts.org

  34. Gina Helms Posted on October 20, 2016 at 7:53 pm

    I'm curious about her overall health, though. Ok, her blood glucose is low, but what about her metabolic processes? Is she able to use enough glucose to 'make energy' and remain healthy?

  35. nmim Posted on November 12, 2016 at 5:08 pm

    6:00 "look that's me learning"

  36. Susan Nash Posted on November 19, 2016 at 11:16 pm

    This was great right up til she started making recommendations based on a sample size of one with short term results. Low carb can cause depression for a starter – at least based on my sample size of one! The other thing that happens is you wind up getting a greater percentage of calories from fat and protein which can unbalance the body by requiring more bile for digestion. This in turn can alter your gut bacteria and cause other problems. I've messed with my diet enough to know that going for short term results can really screw you. A1c is not your life nor even equated with health.

  37. vistagraphsnet Posted on April 9, 2017 at 1:58 am

    I watched 300 hours of you tube vids where drs. MacDougall, Fuhrman, Ornish, and a dozen others use a HIGH CARB, plant based plan to REVERSE diabetes. I could not see where your ADVICE had any basis in science.

  38. Letitia Keller Posted on May 4, 2017 at 10:30 pm

    The FDA SUCKS!

  39. Letitia Keller Posted on May 4, 2017 at 10:47 pm

    Thank you. More info and less advice. The FDA sucks. They are not doing their job in protecting us. You did right Ms. Do your own study and take care of yourself because the FDA WON'T.

  40. BroccoliQueefed Posted on May 4, 2017 at 11:07 pm

    It's the refined grains that are very bad, not the organic, unrefined grains. For instance, bagels should be considered hazardous bio-weapons and waste

  41. Jennifer Mitchell Posted on May 5, 2017 at 12:01 pm

    I am skeptical of the x-axis on her graph at 13:35. If I were doing a Ted Talk I'd want someone to review my Powerpoint for mistakes like that.
    I also want to know why she's waiting 12 hours between main meals, as suggested by the higher-carb diet blood glucose graph, and not eating anything substantial for lunch. If anything is risky with that kind of diet it would be leaving long periods of time between meals like that.
    Plus, all the talk "knowledge is power" and "science is best" and then finishing off with one set of results for one person? Sample size, people! This is pre-GCSE level basics, more data makes the experiment more reliable!
    No, I don't trust this lady. She might be a highly skilled teacher of cell metabolism, and well done for making theoretical teaching practical to students through real-life context… But this doesn't make her an expert in diet, and it certainly doesn't make her a doctor.
    I'm going to leave my few pinches of salt here…

  42. Jerry Howell Posted on May 11, 2017 at 5:10 pm

    Dr. Neal Bernard has laid out the benefits of a whole food vegan diet in reducing insulin intake on type 1 diabetics and totally eliminating insulin need for type 2 diabetes. might wanna look up some of his YouTube videos where he goes into some of the science behind this

  43. Curious Carpenter Posted on June 17, 2017 at 7:45 pm

    Fruits and vegetables are carbohydrates…should i stop eating those?

  44. MrApplewine Posted on July 30, 2017 at 10:17 am

    Yes, you can do this. It is close to or is the ketogenic diet. I don't think it is ideal at all. Instead if you have trouble measuring your insulin I suggest eating the same thing every day at the same time and making it primarily based on starch like japonica rice.

  45. Mary Anderson Dearing Posted on August 25, 2017 at 5:06 pm

    I am surprised that Dr. Pogozelski didn't mention Dr. Richard K. Bernstein who has been working to promote the low carb diet for type I and II diabetic patients for decades.

  46. Say Say's Kitchen Posted on September 19, 2017 at 4:19 pm

    awesome talk yo!

  47. Laurence Chalem Posted on October 12, 2017 at 1:01 am

    What light she provides in the darkness of a corrupt food and medical-advice providing supply chain. Why it is difficult to believe that people who cannot process carbohydrate should probably not eat carbohydrate is testament to the power of such a corrupt, self-centered, patient-hostile, pharm-biased health unprofessional industry. Some things are changing and this speaker is helping to lead the way. Highly recommended viewing.

  48. beachlovingmom Posted on October 12, 2017 at 8:21 pm

    I'd love to hear more from Dr. Wendy Pogozelski. The students at SUNY Geneseo are lucky to have her!

  49. Rebecca Kelley Posted on October 12, 2017 at 9:11 pm

    Very interesting talk, particularly the connections between insulin, hemoglobin, oxygen delivery, and kidney function. My dad is a diabetic and liver-kidney transplant recipient, so these insights are helpful.

  50. zeppage4 Posted on October 13, 2017 at 1:46 am

    I've been fortunate to know Wendy in person as an undergrad. Years later and after completing a medical degree, I still find that her words hold true. A very smart and thoughtful talk like the lectures she would give to us lucky few biochem students years ago. Trust me, she researches into everything she speaks of and has great integrity in the world of research and education.

  51. inglesao.com Posted on November 6, 2017 at 6:48 am

    Very informative, thanks!

  52. Janea Ifill Posted on November 29, 2017 at 8:01 pm

    Dr Pogozelski approach to treating Diabetes is not new. In fact, ages ago it was recommended that the only treatment for Diabetes (both Type 1 and 2) is to complete omit all or majority carbohydrates from your diet. But Carbohydrates play a role in our diet. This is a area that the she does not tackle. On a very basic level, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy. They help fuel your brain, kidneys, heart, muscles and central nervous system. Eating foods high in CHO are part of a healthy meal. Imagine omitting or eating low amounts of CHO/ high fiber foods such as peas, yam and corn and even fruits. In addition to providing CHO these types of food provide other nutrients, that once limited in the diet can affect you in other ways… Perhaps she should have discussed any effects she would have had from this diet such as constipation.

    Food is to be enjoyed, and this approach is in line with this idea that we should deprive ourselves of food to be healthy. This is not so. Eating adequate amount of CHO, eating healthy, exercise and being on a individualized insulin regime can allow anyone to live a normal life without being on a 'low carb' diet.

  53. george duncan Posted on November 30, 2017 at 4:54 am

    thats why liver gives brain glucose from stored glycogen …..fruit fructose bypasses insulin like in RAW honey glucose/fruvtose
    Glut transporters!!

  54. yeah oh right Posted on April 4, 2018 at 3:05 am

    Processed and unprocessed carbs are two entirely different worlds. Disingenuous to say "all carbs" when it's actually only processed carbs that have this kind of reaction.

  55. آكل الدهون Posted on April 20, 2018 at 12:24 am


  56. Denise Aune Elvestad Posted on May 2, 2018 at 10:20 am


  57. Sean Posted on May 2, 2018 at 4:24 pm

    I know it was probably just a simple slip up but I couldn't keep watching after she incorrectly called the x-axis the y-axis

  58. Petros Karamoutis Posted on June 13, 2018 at 7:32 am

    who thinks that she looks exactly like Julianne Moore?

  59. Abdo Abdo Posted on September 18, 2018 at 3:37 pm

    That was really great..

  60. CaptainBanglawala Posted on January 1, 2019 at 4:50 pm

    Is it possible to do low carb and be vegetarian at the same time? Low carb always seems to be like "meat, meat, meat and more meat"

  61. CaptainBanglawala Posted on January 1, 2019 at 4:56 pm

    Knowledge is power but isn't it a bit unrealistic to expect people to know about the thousands of different types of chemical reactions that occur in the human body?

  62. Marley Posted on January 14, 2019 at 12:04 am

    the answer for type 1 diabetics though is still eating the required amount of energy in the form of slow releasing carbohyrdates. To eat what is required of the body to function in a healthy way. You are going to take insulin either way. Eating carbohydrate rich foods that are bound to fibre don't cause excessive spikes in blood glucose and are much easier to manage. Eat whole vegetables, whole beans, and whole grains. We run into problems with all forms of processed carbohydrates because it strips away the fibre. Fibre is the key for controlling blood glucose release rate

  63. willow kat Posted on February 21, 2019 at 7:39 pm

    hard to listen to

  64. Chessversarius Posted on March 23, 2019 at 5:10 pm

    … I really do like bread though…

  65. John Kirton Posted on April 5, 2019 at 7:29 am

    Talking about carbs in such a general way is unlikely to enhance knowledge about nutrition. No gold star from me for that

  66. Dary Moncayo Posted on July 24, 2019 at 12:31 pm

    Uy, this woman got me anxious in the first minute, maybe she has good information but I will skip this video…